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Fudging climate justice: EU and UK legislation for Agro-biofuels and the emerging campaign to stop biofuel targets Biofuelwatch www.biofuelwatch.org.uk introduced by Dr Andrew Boswell, biofuelwatch and UK Green Party councillor on Norfolk County Council. Summary.

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Fudging climate justice:EU and UK legislation for Agro-biofuels and the emerging campaign to stop biofuel targetsBiofuelwatchwww.biofuelwatch.org.ukintroduced by Dr Andrew Boswell, biofuelwatch and UK Green Party councillor on Norfolk County Council

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Summary
Summary

  • Climate Change / Agrofuels background

  • EU and UK legislation

  • Certification and sustainability criteria

  • Legislation/policy needed - Demand reduction is key

  • Join the Campaign!

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Us eu biofuel policy going off the graph
US / EU Biofuel Policy – going off the graph

EU – 10% by

2020 (1% now)

US – 20% by

2020 (4% now)

2020

2010

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Mega scale agrofuel drivers
Mega-scale Agrofuel drivers

  • Government and corporate subsidy and promotion

  • Fits “Business as usual” policies and paradigms

    • Year-on-year economic growth

    • Avoid unpopular “demand reduction” politics

  • Short term “energy security” fix

  • New global mega-industry and infrastructure

    • agribusiness, biotech, and chemical sectors

    • car manufacturers avoid more efficient vehicles

    • refining, tankage and shipping sectors

    • commodity markets (eg Palm Oil, sugar, corn)

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Agrofuel issues
Agrofuel issues

  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) balances

    Land Use Change (LUC), N2O, CO2

  • Environmental impacts:

    Deforestation, loss of habitats / biodiversity, water depletion, soil erosion, chemicals

  • Social impacts:

    Poverty, land grabbing, land conflicts, human rights, labour, food security and sovereignty

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Agriculture land use already 30 40 of global ghgs
Agriculture/Land Use already 30-40% of global GHGs

  • Deforestation, agriculture and peat

Emission Trickery

Exporting emissions from Northern transport to Southern agriculture and land use

From Stern

Report

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Agrofuel luc will create further massive emissions
Agrofuel LUC will create further massive emissions

  • A one-off GHG hit that takes many years to repay

    ‘Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food-based biofuels in Brazil, Southeast Asia, and the United States creates a ‘biofuel carbon debt’ by releasing 17 to 840 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions these biofuels provide by displacing fossil fuels.’

  • Fargione et al, Science, February 2008

  • Peatland rainforest -> Palm Oil: 840 years to repay

    • But Palm Oil plantations only 25 years lifetime

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


N20 needs further study
N20 needs further study

  • microbes convert N fertiliser to N2O

  • Underestimated (IPCC) - Crutzen

  • oilseed rape biodiesel, for example, is up to 70% worse for the climate than fossil fuel diesel (also corn ethanol)

  • UK and EU Biofuels GHG calculations in scientific doubt

  • Nitrogen pollution – Baltic, Gulf of Mexico

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Food vs fuel
Food vs Fuel

UN FAO, September 2007

  • “Developing countries face serious social unrest as they struggle to cope with soaring food prices”

    UN FAO, February 2008

  • “We will have a significant gap … in food aid… , and we will need an extra half billion dollars just to meet existing assessed needs."

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Food vs fuel1
Food vs Fuel

Low-Income Food-Deficit countries (LIFDCs) ::Social unrest / food riots

16 million starve per 1% commodity price rise

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Urgent issues eu uk wheat ethanol surge
Urgent IssuesEU/UK Wheat Ethanol Surge

EU Focus has

been on biodiesel

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Hundreds of NGOs in Latin America, Asia and Africa have spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Impacts on people
Impacts on People spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • Land violations / violence

    • Indonesia human rights disaster (FoE)

      • 7.3 million hectares Palm plantations

      • 513 ongoing conflicts

    • Colombia

  • Land grabbing

    • Governments allow companies to get around land laws

    • Some 2 billion hectares of Southern land up for recolonisation

    • Driven by Jatropha rush (India, Africa)

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Impacts on people1
Impacts on People spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • Human rights

    • Pesticide use (especially with GM Soya varieties etc)

    • Deforestation causing health problems

    • Paramilitaries in Indonesia and Colombia

    • Violent evictions and murders

  • Displaced peoples

    • UN warns up 60 million biofuel refugees

    • Displaced to less than subsistence rural existence, or to the urban poor in mega cities

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Moratorium calls
Moratorium calls spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • George Monbiot, April 2007, Guardian

  • Southern and Northern NGOs (over 150), July 2007

    • No EU Imports, Large scale mono cultures

  • Jean Ziegler, UN, October 2007

    • Food crisis : ‘crime against humanity’

  • African NGOs (30), November 2007

    • No global targets, no more African dev.

  • UK MPs – Environmental Audit Committee

    • Suspend EU/UK targets

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Fudging climate justice : spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Uk legislation rtfo 1
spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.UK Legislation RTFO (1)

Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO)

  • Replacing fuel duty incentives – 20p/litre

  • 2005 consultation (of who?), feasibility study etc.

    • Driven by EU 5.75% by 2010 and 10% by 2020 targets

    • UK level 5% by 2010

  • Requires suppliers to sell a proportion of biofuel

    • Gain certificates; or

    • Purchase certificates from another company; or

    • Pay a buy-out price

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Uk legislation rtfo 2
spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.UK Legislation RTFO (2)

October 2007 – Commons delegated committee

  • 2.5% (2008/9), 3.75% (2009/10), 5% (2010/11)

  • No sustainability criteria until 2011

  • Westminster disquiet

    • For : 10 (LAB –whipped?)

    • Against/Abstain : 5 (CON) and 2 (LibDem)

    • Annual review October 2008

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.UK Legislation RTFO (3)

Carbon savings revised

  • 9 October 2007

    • 3.6 mT CO2 -> 2.6 to 3 mT (2010/11)

  • Jan 2008 : Final figures different to consultation

  • Feb 2008 : Science Paper – ‘Land use change causes massive carbon debt’

  • Ruth Kelly orders review

PANIC!

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.EU Legislation (1)

  • Renewables Directive

    • 20% renewables by 2020

    • 10% by volume biofuels by 2020 (Biofuels Directive (BFD))

  • Fuel Quality Directive (FQD)

    • could force up to 26-28% BFs

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.EU Legislation (2)

  • Sustainability Criteria

  • GHG calculator

    • Where do they go?

    • In BF Directive?

    • In FQ Directive?

    • In both?

    • Variants in each?

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Sustainability criteria 1
Sustainability criteria (1) spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • Direct and indirect environmental impacts:

    Deforestation, loss of habitats / biodiversity, water depletion, soil erosion, chemicals

  • Direct and indirect social impacts:

    Poverty, land conflicts, human rights, labour, food security and sovereignty

  • Start times

    • UK RTFO writes off peat land converted before 2005

    • EU : No GHG target until 2013 for plantations before 2008

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Sustainability criteria 2
Sustainability criteria (2) spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • Driven by interests of industry and government

  • Displacement / leakage not handled

    • Existing agriculture displaced by agrofuels moves into new areas

  • Macro impacts through commodity price shifts not handled

    • Amazon deforestation ←→ soy price

      • US Corn for ethanol displaces US soy => soy price

    • EU oilseed rape use causes palm oil prices causes palm oil expansion

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Ghg calculators
GHG Calculators spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • Largely look at processing side not agriculture side

  • Weighted to favour industry

    • Default values often weighted in favour of poor GHG biofuels

  • Direct and In-direct land use change (LUC) not understood or covered

  • Ditto N2O

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Uk government figures now in complete scientific doubt
UK Government figures NOW in complete scientific doubt spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

  • From LowCVP presentation to UK Bioenergy conference Sept 2007

LUC

Corn Ethanol -50%

Oil Seed rape biodiesel -70%

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Legislation policy for demand reduction
Legislation/Policy spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.for demand reduction

  • Strict/robust vehicle efficiency

  • Public transport investment

    • Modal shift

  • Sustainable planning

    • Reduce journeys

  • Big investment into True renewables

    • Electric vehicles

  • Needs political will/courage

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Descending the transport emissions curve demand reduction is key
Descending the transport emissions curve - spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.Demand reduction is key

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

Current EU energy policy

Reduce vehicle emissions by 50%

- smaller, more efficient vehicles

90% carbon emission reduction needed URGENTLY!

Reduce journeys – planning, modal shift, decouple transport from economy

Reduce liquid fuel – plug-in hybrids

Change Supply - Concentrating Solar Power ?

1990 2000 2010 2020

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Fudging climate justice : spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Biofuels campaigning
Biofuels Campaigning spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

Issue cuts across many areas, tipping points and critical thresholds

  • Climate tipping point

    • Deforestation, climate feedbacks

  • Food security tipping point

  • Land rights critical threshold

    • Whose land is it anyway?

    • Food > Feed > Fuel

    • What about land for carbon sinking?

  • Ecological vs industrial agriculture critical thresholds?

    • monocultures, corporate supply chains, pricing, GMOs

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Uk parliamentary lobbying
spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.UK Parliamentary Lobbying

  • RTFO - Westminster disquiet / Ripe

  • Campaign to MPs – lobbying, letters, email

  • RTFO targets suspended or scrapped

  • UK Block of EU Fuel Quality Directive

  • UK input into post-2010 EU policy

    Ideas / Help?

A UK biofuel U-turn would send strong message to EU

Fudging climate justice :

EU and UK biofuels legislation


Eu parliamentary lobby
spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.EUParliamentary Lobby

  • Renewables (inc. Biofuels) Directive

  • Fuel Quality Directive

    • Sustainability Criteria / GHG calculations

  • Complex power structures

    • Commission, Council, State Ministers, MEPs, Civil Servants

  • Campaign to MEPs, Commissioners – lobbying, letters – penetrate deeper into political structure

  • EU targets revised, frozen or scrapped

  • Fudging climate justice :

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


    Consumers supporters voters

    Fair trade / spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

    Corporate

    Respon

    -sibility

    Consumers / Supporters / Voters

    • RTFO vs. demand reduction awareness, climate change bill

    • Build a mainstream ‘I don’t buy biofuel and I am cutting my fossil fuel use’ consciousness

    Ecological

    and Social

    Justice

    Cleaner

    Vehicles

    and

    Transport

    Deep cuts

    in GHGs

    Fudging climate justice :

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


    Join the blessed unrest
    JOIN THE spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.BLESSED UNREST

    Fudging climate justice :

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


    Blessed unrest
    BLESSED UNREST spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

    • April Biofool’s Day Protests against Gordon Brown on Biofuels

    • Tuesday April 15th – Downing Street, 6.00pm

    • And around UK

    Fudging climate justice :

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


    Contacts
    CONTACTS spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

    Fudging climate justice :

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


    Fudging climate justice : spoken out against large-scale agrofuels.

    EU and UK biofuels legislation


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