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Progressive Movement. Additional Chapter Notes. Progressive Movement. This was not a single movement, just the most drastic change at a given time in our history. Has sparked future reform or changes/ideas of where responsibility lays – in the people or government.

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Progressive movement

Progressive Movement

Additional Chapter Notes


Progressive movement1

Progressive Movement

  • This was not a single movement, just the most drastic change at a given time in our history.

    • Has sparked future reform or changes/ideas of where responsibility lays – in the people or government.

  • Redresses imbalances and curb excesses that arose during the period of industrial growth following the Civil War.

  • Influenced by the growth of media, which allowed for dissemination of ideas and debate.

    • Magazines, city newspapers, etc.


Florence kelley

Florence Kelley

  • Social reformer with strong sympathies for the powerless in society – mainly women and children.

  • Pushed for the government to solve social problems

  • Became the general secretary of the National Consumer’s League

    • Tried to improve labor conditions, particularly child labor laws

  • Wrote numerous books and articles about child labor

  • Muller v. Oregon – pushed for the welfare of women in the workplace


Louis d brandeis

Louis D. Brandeis

  • Advocated with Florence Kelley in Muller v. Oregon

  • Son of a Czech Jew who immigrated to the U.S. in 1849

    • Raised in Louisville, Kentucky and attended Harvard

  • Known as the “people’s attorney” as he defended the constitutionality of several state laws prescribing maximum work hours and minimum wages.

  • Promoted federal antitrust laws

    • Other People’s Money, and How the Bankers Used It (1914) – explained the control investment bankers exercised over American industry.

  • 1916 – Wilson appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court

    • First Jewish person to receive this honor


Anti saloon league

Anti-Saloon League

  • Worked to pass laws to force people to change their drinking habits and punish those who drank

    • Early temperance efforts asked individuals to change their ways

  • Founded by progressive women – mainly

    • Households in which women did not work, men could put security of the entire family in jeopardy

    • Religious convictions and problem behavior induced by drinking (violence, abuse, job accidents/loss)

  • Endorsed politicians who opposed alcohol, regardless of party affiliation.

  • Statewide referendums to ban alcohol

    • 1900-1917 many voters (mainly in the South and West) prohibited sale, production, and use of alcohol

    • Many “dry” towns, city wards, and rural areas


Eugene v debs

Eugene V. Debs

  • Union organizer who led the Pullman Strike of 1894

    • Jailed and help in contempt of court for violating an injunction under the Sherman Antitrust Act

  • Early founder of the Socialist Party of America

    • Competition was unfair – some were left out against people like John D. Rockefeller

  • Ran for president five times

    • 1920 he ran his campaign from prison but still managed to receive almost one million votes


Henry ford model t

Henry Ford/Model T

  • Perfected the large-scale use of the assembly line

    • Reduced the number of hours required for production from 12 to 2 hours for the Model T

    • Lack of consumer choice however – “any color as long as it is black”


Reform governors

Reform Governors

  • James S. Hogg (TX)

    • Drove out illegal insurance companies from TX and pushed for antitrust legislation

    • Regulated railroads – focused on the abuses in rates

      • Railroad commission helped increase milling and manufacturing in TX by lowering freight rates

    • His job – “making war on unscrupulous business” in TX

  • Robert La Follette (“Fighting Bob”) – progressive Republican from WISCONSIN

    • “Wisconsin Idea” – public universities contribute to the state by having professors serve in office, drafting legislation, running commissions, etc.

    • U.S. Senator – tackled big banks

    • 1924 he ran for president as the Progressive Party candidate

    • Start of WI’s most famous political family


Women in public life

Women in Public Life

  • Became politically and socially active

    • Susan B. Anthony, Florence Kelley, Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, etc.

  • Telephone operators – connected wires through a switchboard to make a phone call.

    • Previously done by men, but there were many complaints of profane language and that they talked back.

    • Women accepted the work for only $10/week

    • Demonstrate they are a beneficial part of society to earn equality (similar to ideas from Booker T. Washington).

    • Department stores advertised to shop by phone

      • Chicago ad – “order, inquiry, or request will be quickly and intelligently cared for”, shown with a picture of a line of female telephone operators.


Women s colleges and coeducation

Women’s Colleges and Coeducation

Many women’s colleges (Radcliffe and Pembroke) became part (still separate) of previously male-colleges (Harvard and Brown)

Vassar – previously an all women’s college – is now coed.

Traditional male-only schools (Amherst, Dartmouth, Princeton, Williams) are now coed.

Areas of study that were male-dominated (medicine, law, and engineering) now have equal or greater numbers of females.


Susan b anthony

Susan B. Anthony

  • Suffragette who questioned the 14th Amendment

    • States denying male citizens the right to vote would lose their congressional representation … but aren’t women citizens?

  • Came from a strict Quaker family

    • Self-discipline, education, strong belief system

    • Mary Perkins – her teacher – taught her a positive view of womanhood

    • Voted illegally in the 1872 presidential election and was fined $100, which she never paid.

  • Reviled and scorned in her early years as a suffrage leader

    • 1890 she was a national heroine (however the 19th Amendment didn’t pass until 1919) – well before any progress had been made.


Roosevelt and the square deal

Roosevelt and the Square Deal

  • The Progressive Era is not just about the reforms but also the precedent set for an activist presidency.

  • Roosevelt set the national agenda

    • Previously, there was little in the ways of federal authorities intervening in domestic affairs.

  • Roosevelt expanded the responsibilities of the presidency and described in the Constitution.

    • Arbitrating labor disputes

    • Regulating business


Rough riders

Rough Riders

  • Heroic cavalry brigade during the Spanish-American War (chapter 10)

    • Roosevelt recruited cowboys, police officers, miners, and college athletes.

    • Colonel Leonard Wood resigned his post as the White House physician to command

      • Roosevelt was second in command

    • Although they were a cavalry brigade, most battles they fought were on foot as their horses were often stranded.


Coal mining and the 1902 coal strike

Coal Mining and the 1902 Coal Strike

  • Dangers of coal mining – biggest fears include collapse and explosion

    • After a fire or explosion, miners would descend into the mines with a canary in a cage – a dead bird meant that gases were accumulating and it was time to get out.

  • 1902 Coal Strike – threatened public welfare and the federal government was expected to step in.

    • Coal mine operators were astonished when Roosevelt refused to do their bidding – set up and arbitration

    • 1894 – federal intervention suppressed the Pullman Strike (led by Eugene V. Debs)


Interstate commerce commission icc

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

  • 1906 the ICC used its powers to set and enforce freight rates in the railroad industry.

    • Its authority increased to include railroad workers wages and working conditions, water freight rates, and trucking freight rates.

    • ICC became more successful after the Elkins Act and Hepburn Act

      • Elkins Act (1903) – illegal for railroad officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular railroads.

      • Hepburn Act (1906) – limited the distribution of free railroad passes


Meat inspection

Meat Inspection

  • In the past, meat inspection was mostly about what might fall or walk into products.

  • Today it is about the unseen dangers

    • E. coli bacteria, antibiotics or chemicals, mad cow

      • Mad cow outbreak in Great Britain in 1996 and then across Europe (mainly France, Spain, and Germany) in 2000

    • 1996 meat inspection experienced extensive changes

      • Rising costs of scientific inspections

      • FDA put restrictions on importation of feed and livestock from other countries


Gifford pinchot

Gifford Pinchot

  • Head of the U.S. Forest Service

  • Epitomized the Progressive Era

    • He and Roosevelt fashioned a policy for BOTH conservation and business interests

    • Served during Taft’s administration – questioned the Secretary of Interior, Richard A. Ballinger, for making decisions favoring business interests a the expense of conservation of natural resources.

      • Removed from office by Taft for insubordination and then served two nonconsecutive terms as Pennsylvania governor


Washington v du bois

Washington v. Du Bois

  • Booker T. Washington

    • Educator and spokesperson for African Americans, advocating for self-improvement

    • Urged African Americans to accept their [second class] status under Jim Crow Laws and work to improve themselves through vocational training and economic self-reliance.

      • Made him popular among whites, but Du Bois and other black leaders disagreed with his apparent acceptance of segregation.

  • W.E.B. Du Bois – helped found the NAACP in 1909

    • In 1920 he had a power struggle with NAACP’s executive secretary, Walter White, where Du Bois’ position was ironically similar to Washington.

      • Argued for a separate economy for African Americans making the distinction between forced and voluntary segregation.

      • He was pushed outside the mainstream of the civil rights movement.

  • Both approaches to social reform had strengths.

    • Washington’s counsel for self-improvement was helpful and Du Bois’ militancy helped further the cause of racial equality for African Americans.


Difficult decisions of 1902

Difficult Decisions of 1902

  • Conservationists (Pinchot) pushed for balanced use of natural resources – preserve some and use others for private industry.

  • Free market advocates (Ballinger) wanted private development of wilderness areas.

  • Preservationist (Muir) wanted to preserve all remaining wilderness.

  • What were the pros and cons of each position and what factors in 1902 influence them?

    • Job loss, health concerns, unknown results affecting the balance of nature, threat of extinction to certain species.

  • In 1902, what would you have decided – preserve or develop?


William howard taft

William Howard Taft

  • Only served one term as president (1908-1912)

    • Taught constitutional law at Yale

    • Chaired the National War Labor Board (WWI)

    • Supporter of the League of Nations after WWI

  • 1921 – President Harding named Taft chief justice of the Supreme Court

    • President – one of the people, embody people’s hopes and dreams, and be a strong leader

    • Chief Justice – judicious and analytical mind (fits more in this position)

  • 1910 he initiated the popular presidential custom of throwing out the first ball of the major league baseball season.


1912 election map 331

1912 Election (map – 331)

  • Most states assigned electoral votes on a winner-takes-all basis

  • Taft (Conservative) and Roosevelt (Progressive) split the Republican vote

    • Taft was conservative, cautious, curbing reforms

    • Roosevelt was reform minded, used the bully pulpit (more popular with the people)

    • Wilson did not even need to win 50% of the popular vote to win

    • Wilson won 40 states in the electoral vote (so he would have won without the popular vote) – strong reform agenda as a progressive leader.


Carrie chapman catt

Carrie Chapman Catt

  • Succeeded Susan B. Anthony as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1900.

    • Helped lead the suffrage movement to the successful passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

    • Founding member of the League of Women Voters

    • Leader of the 1920s and 1930s peace movement

Carrie Chapman Catt

Emmeline Pankhurst


Emmeline pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst

  • British suffragist whose bold maneuvers captured media coverage, “tutoring” American women struggling for suffrage.

    • Helped found the National Women’s Social and Political Union who often used radical tactics.

      • Parades, organized protest meetings, hunger strikes, heckled Parliament candidates, spat on policemen (often imprisoned before Parliament granted them suffrage in 1928 – well after America)

      • Even more revolutionary in the context of Victorian society – 1890s-1900s, women were expected to be polite and modest.

        • Women marching in protest and engaging in civil disobedience was a major shock to many.


William monroe trotter

William Monroe Trotter

  • Dissatisfied by Wilson’s inaction to reverse the segregation of government employees.

    • Worked with the Niagara Movement to found the NAACP

    • Later criticized the NAACP policy of racial accommodation and reliance on financial support from whites.

    • Established the National Equal Rights League – protested discrimination

      • Led several nonviolent protests and demonstrations to address issues of racial and social justice.


Deregulation and federal income tax

Deregulation and Federal Income Tax

  • Deregulation – industries are permitted to compete with government control (to improve efficiency and lower prices) – still debated today

    • Progressive Era – regulation was seen as a necessary role of government to ensure safety and fairness for consumers and industrial competitors.

      • Those against regulation said it cause inefficiency and high prices

    • Modern deregulation critics – businesses may skimp on safety, may neglect hard-to-serve populations (elderly, poor, disabled) while competing for more profitable customers.

  • Federal Income Tax – taxing individual earnings and corporate profits (graph on 334)

    • 1915-1955: low tax revenues resulted in relatively low federal spending

    • 1955-1995: tax revenues increased dramatically, as did federal spending


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