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Progressive Movement. Additional Chapter Notes. Progressive Movement. This was not a single movement, just the most drastic change at a given time in our history. Has sparked future reform or changes/ideas of where responsibility lays – in the people or government.

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progressive movement

Progressive Movement

Additional Chapter Notes

progressive movement1
Progressive Movement
  • This was not a single movement, just the most drastic change at a given time in our history.
    • Has sparked future reform or changes/ideas of where responsibility lays – in the people or government.
  • Redresses imbalances and curb excesses that arose during the period of industrial growth following the Civil War.
  • Influenced by the growth of media, which allowed for dissemination of ideas and debate.
    • Magazines, city newspapers, etc.
florence kelley
Florence Kelley
  • Social reformer with strong sympathies for the powerless in society – mainly women and children.
  • Pushed for the government to solve social problems
  • Became the general secretary of the National Consumer’s League
    • Tried to improve labor conditions, particularly child labor laws
  • Wrote numerous books and articles about child labor
  • Muller v. Oregon – pushed for the welfare of women in the workplace
louis d brandeis
Louis D. Brandeis
  • Advocated with Florence Kelley in Muller v. Oregon
  • Son of a Czech Jew who immigrated to the U.S. in 1849
    • Raised in Louisville, Kentucky and attended Harvard
  • Known as the “people’s attorney” as he defended the constitutionality of several state laws prescribing maximum work hours and minimum wages.
  • Promoted federal antitrust laws
    • Other People’s Money, and How the Bankers Used It (1914) – explained the control investment bankers exercised over American industry.
  • 1916 – Wilson appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court
    • First Jewish person to receive this honor
anti saloon league
Anti-Saloon League
  • Worked to pass laws to force people to change their drinking habits and punish those who drank
    • Early temperance efforts asked individuals to change their ways
  • Founded by progressive women – mainly
    • Households in which women did not work, men could put security of the entire family in jeopardy
    • Religious convictions and problem behavior induced by drinking (violence, abuse, job accidents/loss)
  • Endorsed politicians who opposed alcohol, regardless of party affiliation.
  • Statewide referendums to ban alcohol
    • 1900-1917 many voters (mainly in the South and West) prohibited sale, production, and use of alcohol
    • Many “dry” towns, city wards, and rural areas
eugene v debs
Eugene V. Debs
  • Union organizer who led the Pullman Strike of 1894
    • Jailed and help in contempt of court for violating an injunction under the Sherman Antitrust Act
  • Early founder of the Socialist Party of America
    • Competition was unfair – some were left out against people like John D. Rockefeller
  • Ran for president five times
    • 1920 he ran his campaign from prison but still managed to receive almost one million votes
henry ford model t
Henry Ford/Model T
  • Perfected the large-scale use of the assembly line
    • Reduced the number of hours required for production from 12 to 2 hours for the Model T
    • Lack of consumer choice however – “any color as long as it is black”
reform governors
Reform Governors
  • James S. Hogg (TX)
    • Drove out illegal insurance companies from TX and pushed for antitrust legislation
    • Regulated railroads – focused on the abuses in rates
      • Railroad commission helped increase milling and manufacturing in TX by lowering freight rates
    • His job – “making war on unscrupulous business” in TX
  • Robert La Follette (“Fighting Bob”) – progressive Republican from WISCONSIN
    • “Wisconsin Idea” – public universities contribute to the state by having professors serve in office, drafting legislation, running commissions, etc.
    • U.S. Senator – tackled big banks
    • 1924 he ran for president as the Progressive Party candidate
    • Start of WI’s most famous political family
women in public life
Women in Public Life
  • Became politically and socially active
    • Susan B. Anthony, Florence Kelley, Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, etc.
  • Telephone operators – connected wires through a switchboard to make a phone call.
    • Previously done by men, but there were many complaints of profane language and that they talked back.
    • Women accepted the work for only $10/week
    • Demonstrate they are a beneficial part of society to earn equality (similar to ideas from Booker T. Washington).
    • Department stores advertised to shop by phone
      • Chicago ad – “order, inquiry, or request will be quickly and intelligently cared for”, shown with a picture of a line of female telephone operators.
women s colleges and coeducation
Women’s Colleges and Coeducation

Many women’s colleges (Radcliffe and Pembroke) became part (still separate) of previously male-colleges (Harvard and Brown)

Vassar – previously an all women’s college – is now coed.

Traditional male-only schools (Amherst, Dartmouth, Princeton, Williams) are now coed.

Areas of study that were male-dominated (medicine, law, and engineering) now have equal or greater numbers of females.

susan b anthony
Susan B. Anthony
  • Suffragette who questioned the 14th Amendment
    • States denying male citizens the right to vote would lose their congressional representation … but aren’t women citizens?
  • Came from a strict Quaker family
    • Self-discipline, education, strong belief system
    • Mary Perkins – her teacher – taught her a positive view of womanhood
    • Voted illegally in the 1872 presidential election and was fined $100, which she never paid.
  • Reviled and scorned in her early years as a suffrage leader
    • 1890 she was a national heroine (however the 19th Amendment didn’t pass until 1919) – well before any progress had been made.
roosevelt and the square deal
Roosevelt and the Square Deal
  • The Progressive Era is not just about the reforms but also the precedent set for an activist presidency.
  • Roosevelt set the national agenda
    • Previously, there was little in the ways of federal authorities intervening in domestic affairs.
  • Roosevelt expanded the responsibilities of the presidency and described in the Constitution.
    • Arbitrating labor disputes
    • Regulating business
rough riders
Rough Riders
  • Heroic cavalry brigade during the Spanish-American War (chapter 10)
    • Roosevelt recruited cowboys, police officers, miners, and college athletes.
    • Colonel Leonard Wood resigned his post as the White House physician to command
      • Roosevelt was second in command
    • Although they were a cavalry brigade, most battles they fought were on foot as their horses were often stranded.
coal mining and the 1902 coal strike
Coal Mining and the 1902 Coal Strike
  • Dangers of coal mining – biggest fears include collapse and explosion
    • After a fire or explosion, miners would descend into the mines with a canary in a cage – a dead bird meant that gases were accumulating and it was time to get out.
  • 1902 Coal Strike – threatened public welfare and the federal government was expected to step in.
    • Coal mine operators were astonished when Roosevelt refused to do their bidding – set up and arbitration
    • 1894 – federal intervention suppressed the Pullman Strike (led by Eugene V. Debs)
interstate commerce commission icc
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • 1906 the ICC used its powers to set and enforce freight rates in the railroad industry.
    • Its authority increased to include railroad workers wages and working conditions, water freight rates, and trucking freight rates.
    • ICC became more successful after the Elkins Act and Hepburn Act
      • Elkins Act (1903) – illegal for railroad officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular railroads.
      • Hepburn Act (1906) – limited the distribution of free railroad passes
meat inspection
Meat Inspection
  • In the past, meat inspection was mostly about what might fall or walk into products.
  • Today it is about the unseen dangers
    • E. coli bacteria, antibiotics or chemicals, mad cow
      • Mad cow outbreak in Great Britain in 1996 and then across Europe (mainly France, Spain, and Germany) in 2000
    • 1996 meat inspection experienced extensive changes
      • Rising costs of scientific inspections
      • FDA put restrictions on importation of feed and livestock from other countries
gifford pinchot
Gifford Pinchot
  • Head of the U.S. Forest Service
  • Epitomized the Progressive Era
    • He and Roosevelt fashioned a policy for BOTH conservation and business interests
    • Served during Taft’s administration – questioned the Secretary of Interior, Richard A. Ballinger, for making decisions favoring business interests a the expense of conservation of natural resources.
      • Removed from office by Taft for insubordination and then served two nonconsecutive terms as Pennsylvania governor
washington v du bois
Washington v. Du Bois
  • Booker T. Washington
    • Educator and spokesperson for African Americans, advocating for self-improvement
    • Urged African Americans to accept their [second class] status under Jim Crow Laws and work to improve themselves through vocational training and economic self-reliance.
      • Made him popular among whites, but Du Bois and other black leaders disagreed with his apparent acceptance of segregation.
  • W.E.B. Du Bois – helped found the NAACP in 1909
    • In 1920 he had a power struggle with NAACP’s executive secretary, Walter White, where Du Bois’ position was ironically similar to Washington.
      • Argued for a separate economy for African Americans making the distinction between forced and voluntary segregation.
      • He was pushed outside the mainstream of the civil rights movement.
  • Both approaches to social reform had strengths.
    • Washington’s counsel for self-improvement was helpful and Du Bois’ militancy helped further the cause of racial equality for African Americans.
difficult decisions of 1902
Difficult Decisions of 1902
  • Conservationists (Pinchot) pushed for balanced use of natural resources – preserve some and use others for private industry.
  • Free market advocates (Ballinger) wanted private development of wilderness areas.
  • Preservationist (Muir) wanted to preserve all remaining wilderness.
  • What were the pros and cons of each position and what factors in 1902 influence them?
    • Job loss, health concerns, unknown results affecting the balance of nature, threat of extinction to certain species.
  • In 1902, what would you have decided – preserve or develop?
william howard taft
William Howard Taft
  • Only served one term as president (1908-1912)
    • Taught constitutional law at Yale
    • Chaired the National War Labor Board (WWI)
    • Supporter of the League of Nations after WWI
  • 1921 – President Harding named Taft chief justice of the Supreme Court
    • President – one of the people, embody people’s hopes and dreams, and be a strong leader
    • Chief Justice – judicious and analytical mind (fits more in this position)
  • 1910 he initiated the popular presidential custom of throwing out the first ball of the major league baseball season.
1912 election map 331
1912 Election (map – 331)
  • Most states assigned electoral votes on a winner-takes-all basis
  • Taft (Conservative) and Roosevelt (Progressive) split the Republican vote
    • Taft was conservative, cautious, curbing reforms
    • Roosevelt was reform minded, used the bully pulpit (more popular with the people)
    • Wilson did not even need to win 50% of the popular vote to win
    • Wilson won 40 states in the electoral vote (so he would have won without the popular vote) – strong reform agenda as a progressive leader.
carrie chapman catt
Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Succeeded Susan B. Anthony as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1900.
    • Helped lead the suffrage movement to the successful passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
    • Founding member of the League of Women Voters
    • Leader of the 1920s and 1930s peace movement

Carrie Chapman Catt

Emmeline Pankhurst

emmeline pankhurst
Emmeline Pankhurst
  • British suffragist whose bold maneuvers captured media coverage, “tutoring” American women struggling for suffrage.
    • Helped found the National Women’s Social and Political Union who often used radical tactics.
      • Parades, organized protest meetings, hunger strikes, heckled Parliament candidates, spat on policemen (often imprisoned before Parliament granted them suffrage in 1928 – well after America)
      • Even more revolutionary in the context of Victorian society – 1890s-1900s, women were expected to be polite and modest.
        • Women marching in protest and engaging in civil disobedience was a major shock to many.
william monroe trotter
William Monroe Trotter
  • Dissatisfied by Wilson’s inaction to reverse the segregation of government employees.
    • Worked with the Niagara Movement to found the NAACP
    • Later criticized the NAACP policy of racial accommodation and reliance on financial support from whites.
    • Established the National Equal Rights League – protested discrimination
      • Led several nonviolent protests and demonstrations to address issues of racial and social justice.
deregulation and federal income tax
Deregulation and Federal Income Tax
  • Deregulation – industries are permitted to compete with government control (to improve efficiency and lower prices) – still debated today
    • Progressive Era – regulation was seen as a necessary role of government to ensure safety and fairness for consumers and industrial competitors.
      • Those against regulation said it cause inefficiency and high prices
    • Modern deregulation critics – businesses may skimp on safety, may neglect hard-to-serve populations (elderly, poor, disabled) while competing for more profitable customers.
  • Federal Income Tax – taxing individual earnings and corporate profits (graph on 334)
    • 1915-1955: low tax revenues resulted in relatively low federal spending
    • 1955-1995: tax revenues increased dramatically, as did federal spending