Chapter 16 Extrachromosomal Replication. 16.1 Introduction. Bacterial extrachromosomal genomes fall into two general types: plasmids and bacteriophages (phages). Some plasmids, and all phages, have the ability to transfer from a donor bacterium to a recipient by an infective process.
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16.2 The Ends of Linear DNA Are a Problem for Replication
Figure 16.1. Replication could run off the 3’ end of a newly synthesized linear strand, but could it initiate at a 5’ end?
16.3 Terminal Proteins Enable Initiation at the Ends of Viral DNAs
Figure 16.2. Adenovirus DNA replication is initiated separately at the two ends of the molecule and proceeds by strand displacement.
Figure 16.3. The 5’ terminal phosphate at each end of adenovirus DNA is covalently linked to serine in the 55 kD Ad-binding protein.
Figure 16.4. Adenovirus terminal protein binds to the 5’ end of DNA and provides a C-OH end to prime synthesis of a new DNA strand.
16.4 Rolling Circles Produce Multimers of a Replicon
Figure 16.5. The rolling circle generates a multimeric single-stranded tail.
Figure 16.6. A rolling circle appears as a circular molecule with a linear tail by electron microscopy.
Figure 16.7. The fate of the displaced tail determines the types of products generated by rolling circles. Cleavage at unit length generates monomers, which can be converted to duplex and circular forms. Cleavage of multimers generates a series of tandemly repeated copies of the original unit. Note that the conversion to double-stranded form could occur earlier, before the tail is cleaved from the rolling circle.
16.5 Rolling Circles Are Used to Replicate Phage Genomes
Figure 16.8. φX174 RF DNA is a template for synthesizing single-stranded viral circles. The A protein remains attached to the same genome through indefinite revolutions, each time nicking the origin on the viral (+) strand and transferring to the new 5’ end. At the same time, the released viral strand is circularized..
15.6 The F Plasmid Is Transferred by Conjugation between Bacteria
Figure 16.9. The tra region of the F plasmid contains the genes needed for bacterial conjugation.
Figure 16.10. Mating bacteria are initially connected when donor F pili contact the recipient bacterium.
16.7 Conjugation Transfers Single-Stranded DNA
Figure 16.11. Transfer of DNA occurs when the F factor is nicked at oriT and a single strand is led by the 5’ end into the recipient. Only one unit length is transferred. Complementary strands are synthesized to the single strand remaining in the donor and to the strand transferred into the recipient.
Figure 16.12. Transfer of chromosomal DNA occurs when an integrated F factor is nicked at oriT. Transfer of DNA starts with a short sequence of F DNA and continues until prevented by loss of contact between the bacteria.
16.8 The Bacterial Ti Plasmid Causes Crown Gall Disease in Plants
Figure 16.13. An Agrobacterium carrying a Ti plasmid of the nopaline type induces a teratoma, in which differentiated structures develop.
Figure 16.14. Ti plasmids carry genes involved in both plant and bacterial functions.
16.9 T-DNA Carries Genes Required for Infection
Figure 16.15. T-DNA is transferred from Agrobacterium carrying a Ti plasmid into a plant cell, where it becomes integrated into the nuclear genome and expresses functions that transform the host cell.
Figure 16.16. Nopaline and octopine Ti plasmids carry a variety of genes, including T-regions that have overlapping functions.
Figure 16.17. The vir region of the Ti plasmid has six loci that are responsible for transferring T-DNA to an infected plant.
Figure 16.18. Acetosyringone (4-acetyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) is produced by N. tabacum upon wounding and induces transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium.
Figure 16.19. The two-component system of VirA-VirG responds to phenolic signals by activating transcription of target genes.
16.10 Transfer of T-DNA Resembles Bacterial Conjugation
Figure 16.20. T-DNA has almost identical repeats of 25 bp at each end in the Ti plasmid. The right repeat is necessary for transfer and integration to a plant genome. T-DNA that is integrated in a plant genome has a precise junction that retains 1 to 2 bp of the right repeat, but the left junction varies and may be up to 100 bp short of the left repeat.
Figure 16.21. T-DNA is generated by displacement when DNA synthesis starts at a nick made at the right repeat. The reaction is terminated by a nick at the left repeat.