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Chapter 12. Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. The Fertilization Process. Ovum released from ovary, drifts to fallopian tube Oocyte viable ~ 12 - 24 hours after ovulation Sperm viable ~ 12 - 48 hours Capacitation: takes 6-8 hours

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Chapter 12

Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth


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The Fertilization Process

  • Ovum released from ovary, drifts to fallopian tube

    • Oocyte viable ~ 12 - 24 hours after ovulation

    • Sperm viable ~ 12 - 48 hours

  • Capacitation: takes 6-8 hours

    • biochemical changes in sperm cell; release enzymes that allows it to penetrate egg’s outer membranes


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Fertilization Process

  • A single sperm is inside the oocyte cytoplasm

    • An electrical reaction prevents any other sperm from entering

  • Oocyte swells

    • Detaches sperm that cling to outer layer

  • Sperm and ovum nuclei release chromosomes

    • Chromosomes divide to form the diploid zygote containing 23 pairs of chromosomes

    • Fertilization is now complete


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Development of the Conceptus

  • Zygote undergoes cell divisions

    • Becomes a blastocyst of 100 cells after 4-5 days

    • Blastocyst implants in uterine lining on 6th or 7th day

  • Blastocystbecomes embryo after implantation in uterus

  • Embryo is called a fetus after 8th week


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Pregnancy Detection

  • Test for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

  • Blood analysis

  • Home pregnancy tests

  • Early physical signs

    • Changes in cervix occur about 4 weeks after a missed period

    • Hegar’s sign

    • Labia change color, gaining purple hue


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Changes in Women During Pregnancy

  • Vary according to woman’s personality, feelings, and circumstances

    • Changes in relationships

    • Physical and emotional changes during each trimester

      • Three trimesters—each 3 months long

      • First trimester may include nausea, vomiting, fatigue


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Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus

  • Effects of teratogens

    • Substances that cause defects in embryonic and fetal development

  • Infectious diseases

    • German Measles (rubella)

    • Group B streptococcus


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Sexually transmitted infections

Can be transmitted from pregnant woman to fetus, newborn, or infant

Chlamydia

Gonorrhea

Hepatitis B

HIV

Syphilis

Genital herpes

Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus


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Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus

  • Pregnancy after age 35

    • Is more common as women wait to have children

    • Increased likelihood of chromosomal variation

    • Risk increases with increasing maternal age


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Complications in Pregnancy

  • Ectopic pregnancy

  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension

  • Premature births

  • Delayed labor


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Diagnosing Abnormalities of the Fetus

  • Ultrasound

  • Amniocentesis

  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening


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Ultrasound

  • High frequency sound waves determine size and position of fetus

  • Sonogram—picture

  • Estimates fetal age, guides during amniocentesis, checks for physical birth defects, evaluates complications during pregnancy


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Amniocentesis

  • Amniotic fluid is withdrawn with needle inserted through abdominal wall

  • Detects: fetal abnormalities; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, spina bifida, sex and age

  • 0.5-2% chance of fetal death


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Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

  • Thin catheter inserted through abdomen or cervix into uterus and some chorionic villi are sucked into tube

  • Detects: fetal abnormalities

  • Performed 9-11 weeks


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Alpha-fetoprotein Screening

  • Test run on mother’s blood

  • After 16 weeks of pregnancy

  • Detects: defects of spine, spinal cord, skull and brain


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Pregnancy Loss

  • Early pregnancy loss

  • Miscarriage

  • Infant mortality

  • Coping with loss


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Infertility

  • The inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry a child to term

  • Fertility issues are equally distributed among men and women

  • 1% of children in U.S. are the product of assisted fertility


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Female Infertility

  • Physical causes

    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, an infection of the fallopian tubes or uterus

    • Approximately 20%

  • Hormonal & psychological causes

    • Hormone release may be atypical

    • Stress, anxiety, allergy

    • Approximately 20%

  • Environmental factors


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Male Infertility

  • Low sperm count

  • Decrease of sperm motility

  • Misshapen sperm

  • Sperm duct blockage

  • Ejaculatory difficulties

  • Environmental factors

  • Men’s fertility begins dwindling after age 27


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Infertility Treatment

  • Enhancing fertility

    • Selective timing of sexual activity

    • Man wears boxer underwear

    • Woman lies with her back elevated following internal ejaculation


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Medical Intervention

  • Fertility medications

  • Surgery

  • Artificial insemination


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Assisted Reproductive Technology

  • In vitro fertilization - IVF

  • Gamete intrafallopian transfer – GIFT

  • Zygote intrafallopian transfer – ZIFT

  • Surrogate motherhood

  • Cloning

  • Sex selection


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Giving Birth: Labor and Delivery

  • Relaxin released by the placenta

  • Braxton Hick contractions


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Labor Stages

  • Stage 1:

    • Effacement: thinning of cervix

    • Dilation: opening up of cervix

    • Mucus plug is expelled

    • Amniotic sac ruptures

    • Contractions are regular and progressive

    • Transition


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Labor and Delivery

  • Stage 2

    • Begins when baby’s head moves into birth canal

    • Ends when baby is born

    • Vernix: waxy substance which may cover baby

  • Stage 3

    • Afterbirth: placenta is expelled


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Following birth

  • Neonate

  • Apgar score

  • Lochia

  • Joy


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Choices in Childbirth

  • Hospital birth

  • Cesarean section

  • Prepared childbirth

  • Episiotomy

  • Birthing rooms and centers

  • Home birth

  • Midwifery


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Breast Feeding

  • Colostrum

  • Benefits

    • Bonding

    • Immune system of baby

    • HIV


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Becoming a Parent

  • Postpartum period

  • Postpartum depression

  • Postpartum psychosis

  • Family Medical Leave Act


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Summary

  • Fertilization and fetal development

  • Being pregnant

  • Infertility

  • Giving birth

  • Becoming a parent


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