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Chapter 12. Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. The Fertilization Process. Ovum released from ovary, drifts to fallopian tube Oocyte viable ~ 12 - 24 hours after ovulation Sperm viable ~ 12 - 48 hours Capacitation: takes 6-8 hours

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth

the fertilization process
The Fertilization Process
  • Ovum released from ovary, drifts to fallopian tube
    • Oocyte viable ~ 12 - 24 hours after ovulation
    • Sperm viable ~ 12 - 48 hours
  • Capacitation: takes 6-8 hours
    • biochemical changes in sperm cell; release enzymes that allows it to penetrate egg’s outer membranes
fertilization process
Fertilization Process
  • A single sperm is inside the oocyte cytoplasm
    • An electrical reaction prevents any other sperm from entering
  • Oocyte swells
    • Detaches sperm that cling to outer layer
  • Sperm and ovum nuclei release chromosomes
    • Chromosomes divide to form the diploid zygote containing 23 pairs of chromosomes
    • Fertilization is now complete
development of the conceptus
Development of the Conceptus
  • Zygote undergoes cell divisions
    • Becomes a blastocyst of 100 cells after 4-5 days
    • Blastocyst implants in uterine lining on 6th or 7th day
  • Blastocystbecomes embryo after implantation in uterus
  • Embryo is called a fetus after 8th week
pregnancy detection
Pregnancy Detection
  • Test for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • Blood analysis
  • Home pregnancy tests
  • Early physical signs
    • Changes in cervix occur about 4 weeks after a missed period
    • Hegar’s sign
    • Labia change color, gaining purple hue
changes in women during pregnancy
Changes in Women During Pregnancy
  • Vary according to woman’s personality, feelings, and circumstances
    • Changes in relationships
    • Physical and emotional changes during each trimester
      • Three trimesters—each 3 months long
      • First trimester may include nausea, vomiting, fatigue
complications of pregnancy and dangers to the fetus
Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus
  • Effects of teratogens
    • Substances that cause defects in embryonic and fetal development
  • Infectious diseases
    • German Measles (rubella)
    • Group B streptococcus
complications of pregnancy and dangers to the fetus8
Sexually transmitted infections

Can be transmitted from pregnant woman to fetus, newborn, or infant

Chlamydia

Gonorrhea

Hepatitis B

HIV

Syphilis

Genital herpes

Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus
complications of pregnancy and dangers to the fetus9
Complications of Pregnancy and Dangers to the Fetus
  • Pregnancy after age 35
    • Is more common as women wait to have children
    • Increased likelihood of chromosomal variation
    • Risk increases with increasing maternal age
complications in pregnancy
Complications in Pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Premature births
  • Delayed labor
diagnosing abnormalities of the fetus
Diagnosing Abnormalities of the Fetus
  • Ultrasound
  • Amniocentesis
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening
ultrasound
Ultrasound
  • High frequency sound waves determine size and position of fetus
  • Sonogram—picture
  • Estimates fetal age, guides during amniocentesis, checks for physical birth defects, evaluates complications during pregnancy
amniocentesis
Amniocentesis
  • Amniotic fluid is withdrawn with needle inserted through abdominal wall
  • Detects: fetal abnormalities; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, spina bifida, sex and age
  • 0.5-2% chance of fetal death
chorionic villus sampling cvs
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
  • Thin catheter inserted through abdomen or cervix into uterus and some chorionic villi are sucked into tube
  • Detects: fetal abnormalities
  • Performed 9-11 weeks
alpha fetoprotein screening
Alpha-fetoprotein Screening
  • Test run on mother’s blood
  • After 16 weeks of pregnancy
  • Detects: defects of spine, spinal cord, skull and brain
pregnancy loss
Pregnancy Loss
  • Early pregnancy loss
  • Miscarriage
  • Infant mortality
  • Coping with loss
infertility
Infertility
  • The inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry a child to term
  • Fertility issues are equally distributed among men and women
  • 1% of children in U.S. are the product of assisted fertility
female infertility
Female Infertility
  • Physical causes
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, an infection of the fallopian tubes or uterus
    • Approximately 20%
  • Hormonal & psychological causes
    • Hormone release may be atypical
    • Stress, anxiety, allergy
    • Approximately 20%
  • Environmental factors
male infertility
Male Infertility
  • Low sperm count
  • Decrease of sperm motility
  • Misshapen sperm
  • Sperm duct blockage
  • Ejaculatory difficulties
  • Environmental factors
  • Men’s fertility begins dwindling after age 27
infertility treatment
Infertility Treatment
  • Enhancing fertility
    • Selective timing of sexual activity
    • Man wears boxer underwear
    • Woman lies with her back elevated following internal ejaculation
medical intervention
Medical Intervention
  • Fertility medications
  • Surgery
  • Artificial insemination
assisted reproductive technology
Assisted Reproductive Technology
  • In vitro fertilization - IVF
  • Gamete intrafallopian transfer – GIFT
  • Zygote intrafallopian transfer – ZIFT
  • Surrogate motherhood
  • Cloning
  • Sex selection
giving birth labor and delivery
Giving Birth: Labor and Delivery
  • Relaxin released by the placenta
  • Braxton Hick contractions
labor stages
Labor Stages
  • Stage 1:
    • Effacement: thinning of cervix
    • Dilation: opening up of cervix
    • Mucus plug is expelled
    • Amniotic sac ruptures
    • Contractions are regular and progressive
    • Transition
labor and delivery
Labor and Delivery
  • Stage 2
    • Begins when baby’s head moves into birth canal
    • Ends when baby is born
    • Vernix: waxy substance which may cover baby
  • Stage 3
    • Afterbirth: placenta is expelled
following birth
Following birth
  • Neonate
  • Apgar score
  • Lochia
  • Joy
choices in childbirth
Choices in Childbirth
  • Hospital birth
  • Cesarean section
  • Prepared childbirth
  • Episiotomy
  • Birthing rooms and centers
  • Home birth
  • Midwifery
breast feeding
Breast Feeding
  • Colostrum
  • Benefits
    • Bonding
    • Immune system of baby
    • HIV
becoming a parent
Becoming a Parent
  • Postpartum period
  • Postpartum depression
  • Postpartum psychosis
  • Family Medical Leave Act
summary
Summary
  • Fertilization and fetal development
  • Being pregnant
  • Infertility
  • Giving birth
  • Becoming a parent
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