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& the Cider House Rules. Attachment Theory. Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire. Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies.

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Maureen mack ph d curriculum instruction university of wisconsin eau claire l.jpg

& theCider House Rules

Attachment Theory

Maureen Mack, Ph.D.

Curriculum & Instruction

University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire


Overview l.jpg

Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment

Types of Disordered Attachment

Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain

Treatment and Strategies

Overview


Definition of secure attachment l.jpg

Secure attachment is an enduring affective bond characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.

– Ainsworth and Bowlby

Definition of Secure Attachment


Characteristics of secure attachment l.jpg
Characteristics of Secure Attachment characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.

  • Deep, long lasting, emotional attachment

  • Influences mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values (Levy)

  • Positive affect on self-esteem, independence, enduring relationships, empathy, compassion, and resiliency


Critical aspect of attachment l.jpg
Critical Aspect of Attachment characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.

Emotional Sensitivity—appropriate parental emotional expression and reception. EA qualities can be observed in parents of children of any age.


Secure attachment l.jpg

Secure Attachment characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.

=

Parents + Child

Secure Attachment

Instinctual urge to attach rooted in evolution


Definition of attachment disorder l.jpg

Attachment disorder is the inability to form loving, lasting intimate relationships

Definition of Attachment Disorder


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Characteristics of intimate relationshipsAttachment Disorder

  • Lack of reciprocal behavior

  • Rights violations

  • Frequent aggressive and destructive acts

  • Lack of remorse


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Examples of intimate relationshipsSecure-Insecure Attachment

Homer

View Movie Clip from website (9,507 kb .wmv)


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Examples of intimate relationshipsSecure-Insecure Attachment

Bedtime at the Orphanage

View Movie Clip from website (4,131 kb .wmv)


Small group exercise 1 l.jpg
Small Group Exercise 1 intimate relationships


Overview13 l.jpg
Overview intimate relationships

  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment

  • Types of Disordered Attachment

  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain

  • Treatment and Strategies


Types of insecure attachment l.jpg
Types of Insecure Attachment intimate relationships

Ambivalent

Avoidant

Disorganized


Ambivalent l.jpg
Ambivalent intimate relationships

  • Cling, withdraw in unfamiliar environment

  • Separation anxiety

  • Rejects efforts tocomfort, sooth


Avoidant l.jpg
Avoidant intimate relationships

  • Pseudo independence and self-sufficiency

  • Rejects or avoids comforting

  • Unaffected by close,intimate contacts


Disorganized l.jpg
Disorganized intimate relationships

  • Most serious form

  • No consistent strategy for comfort-seeking

  • Depression, motor-freezing, anddisassociation


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Insecure Attachment Continuum intimate relationships

Mild

Severe


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Mild intimate relationships

Severe

Common Causes of Disorder Attachment

  • Abuse

  • Neglect

  • Addiction

  • Multiple out of home placements

  • Parental death/loss


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Hard Being An Orphan intimate relationships

View Movie Clip from website (5,530 kb .wmv)


Characteristics l.jpg

Behavioral intimate relationships

Emotional

Characteristics


Characteristics22 l.jpg

Thought intimate relationships

Relational

Characteristics


Characteristics23 l.jpg

Physical intimate relationships

Moral/Spiritual

Characteristics


Small group exercise 2 l.jpg
Small Group Exercise 2 intimate relationships


Overview25 l.jpg
Overview intimate relationships

  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment

  • Types of Disordered Attachment

  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain

  • Treatment and Strategies


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Brain Development intimate relationships

Normal

Altered


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Alarm Reactions intimate relationships

Alter chemical wiring

Traumatized infants/children

Neurobehavioral problems

Brain Development

Fetal—first 2 years—most rapid growth; quality of caretaking impacts brain

Normal

Altered


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Attachment Disorder and ADHD intimate relationships

Bonding Breaks

Attachment Deficits

Symptoms of ADHD


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Small Group Exercise 3 intimate relationships


Homer returns l.jpg
Homer Returns intimate relationships

View Movie Clip from website (19,304 kb .wmv)


Overview31 l.jpg
Overview intimate relationships

  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment

  • Types of Disordered Attachment

  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain

  • Treatment and Strategies


Treatment l.jpg
Treatment intimate relationships

  • Create attachment patterns

  • Systemic approach to ward against triangulation

  • Holistic-integrative approaches

  • Revisit, revise, revitalize

  • Relationship healing


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Strategies for Developing intimate relationshipsSecure Attachments

  • Reciprocal behaviors between child and adult

    • Respectful eye contact, body language

    • Respectful verbal language

    • Calming, soothing, nurturing responses

    • Claiming behaviors

    • Physical proximity and touching

    • Careful, deliberate listening

    • Accepting limits - boundaries


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Strategies for Developing intimate relationshipsSecure Attachments

  • Climate and Relational

    • Ease and spontaneity in words and movements

    • Comfort in compliments, affection, appreciation

    • Harmony in words and actions

    • Preserve harmony and dignity under stress


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Strategies for Developing intimate relationshipsSecure Attachments

  • Classroom Environment/Structure

    • Rationality

    • Realism

    • Intuitiveness

    • Creativity

    • Admit and correct mistakes

    • Benevolence and cooperativeness


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Strategies for Developing intimate relationshipsSecure Attachments

  • Specific Instruction and Intervention Approaches

    • Family Bereavement Program

    • Character trait assessment through literature

    • Integration of Search Institute External/Internal Asset Checklist into curriculum, lessons activities

    • Role model unit

    • Share personal feelings and stories

    • Create and maintain safe, non-judgmental instructional environment

    • Teacher Assistance Programs


Small group exercise 4 l.jpg
Small Group Exercise 4 intimate relationships


References l.jpg
References intimate relationships

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and the exploratory behavior of one year olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 113-136). London: Metheun.

Gallup, G. H., Moore, D. W., & Schussel, R. (1995). Disciplining children in America: A Gallup Poll Report. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.

Irving, John. (1999). The Cider House Rules. Modern Library: ISBN: 0679603352

 Lach, J. (1997). Facilitating developmental attachment: The road to emotional recover and behavioral change in foster and adopted children. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

 Levy, Terry, M. (editor). (2000). Handbook of Attachment Interventions. San Diego: California.

 Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, 572-585.

 Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 121-160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Perry, B. D., Pollard, R., Blakely, T., Baker, W., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4), 271-291.

Terr, L. A. (1991). Chihood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1-20.

The Cider House Rules. (1999). Miramax Films.


Questions l.jpg
Questions intimate relationships

?


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Thanks for Coming! intimate relationships

Maureen Mack, Ph.D.

[email protected]

University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire


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