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& the Cider House Rules. Attachment Theory. Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire. Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies.

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maureen mack ph d curriculum instruction university of wisconsin eau claire

& theCider House Rules

Attachment Theory

Maureen Mack, Ph.D.

Curriculum & Instruction

University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire

overview
Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment

Types of Disordered Attachment

Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain

Treatment and Strategies

Overview
definition of secure attachment

Secure attachment is an enduring affective bond characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.

– Ainsworth and Bowlby

Definition of Secure Attachment
characteristics of secure attachment
Characteristics of Secure Attachment
  • Deep, long lasting, emotional attachment
  • Influences mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values (Levy)
  • Positive affect on self-esteem, independence, enduring relationships, empathy, compassion, and resiliency
critical aspect of attachment
Critical Aspect of Attachment

Emotional Sensitivity—appropriate parental emotional expression and reception. EA qualities can be observed in parents of children of any age.

secure attachment

Secure Attachment

=

Parents + Child

Secure Attachment

Instinctual urge to attach rooted in evolution

characteristics of attachment disorder
Characteristics of Attachment Disorder
  • Lack of reciprocal behavior
  • Rights violations
  • Frequent aggressive and destructive acts
  • Lack of remorse
examples of secure insecure attachment
Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment

Homer

View Movie Clip from website (9,507 kb .wmv)

examples of secure insecure attachment11
Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment

Bedtime at the Orphanage

View Movie Clip from website (4,131 kb .wmv)

overview13
Overview
  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment
  • Types of Disordered Attachment
  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain
  • Treatment and Strategies
types of insecure attachment
Types of Insecure Attachment

Ambivalent

Avoidant

Disorganized

ambivalent
Ambivalent
  • Cling, withdraw in unfamiliar environment
  • Separation anxiety
  • Rejects efforts tocomfort, sooth
avoidant
Avoidant
  • Pseudo independence and self-sufficiency
  • Rejects or avoids comforting
  • Unaffected by close,intimate contacts
disorganized
Disorganized
  • Most serious form
  • No consistent strategy for comfort-seeking
  • Depression, motor-freezing, anddisassociation
common causes of disorder attachment

Mild

Severe

Common Causes of Disorder Attachment
  • Abuse
  • Neglect
  • Addiction
  • Multiple out of home placements
  • Parental death/loss
hard being an orphan
Hard Being An Orphan

View Movie Clip from website (5,530 kb .wmv)

overview25
Overview
  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment
  • Types of Disordered Attachment
  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain
  • Treatment and Strategies
brain development
Brain Development

Normal

Altered

brain development27

Alarm Reactions

Alter chemical wiring

Traumatized infants/children

Neurobehavioral problems

Brain Development

Fetal—first 2 years—most rapid growth; quality of caretaking impacts brain

Normal

Altered

attachment disorder and adhd
Attachment Disorder and ADHD

Bonding Breaks

Attachment Deficits

Symptoms of ADHD

homer returns
Homer Returns

View Movie Clip from website (19,304 kb .wmv)

overview31
Overview
  • Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment
  • Types of Disordered Attachment
  • Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain
  • Treatment and Strategies
treatment
Treatment
  • Create attachment patterns
  • Systemic approach to ward against triangulation
  • Holistic-integrative approaches
  • Revisit, revise, revitalize
  • Relationship healing
strategies for developing secure attachments
Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments
  • Reciprocal behaviors between child and adult
    • Respectful eye contact, body language
    • Respectful verbal language
    • Calming, soothing, nurturing responses
    • Claiming behaviors
    • Physical proximity and touching
    • Careful, deliberate listening
    • Accepting limits - boundaries
strategies for developing secure attachments34
Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments
  • Climate and Relational
    • Ease and spontaneity in words and movements
    • Comfort in compliments, affection, appreciation
    • Harmony in words and actions
    • Preserve harmony and dignity under stress
strategies for developing secure attachments35
Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments
  • Classroom Environment/Structure
    • Rationality
    • Realism
    • Intuitiveness
    • Creativity
    • Admit and correct mistakes
    • Benevolence and cooperativeness
strategies for developing secure attachments36
Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments
  • Specific Instruction and Intervention Approaches
    • Family Bereavement Program
    • Character trait assessment through literature
    • Integration of Search Institute External/Internal Asset Checklist into curriculum, lessons activities
    • Role model unit
    • Share personal feelings and stories
    • Create and maintain safe, non-judgmental instructional environment
    • Teacher Assistance Programs
references
References

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and the exploratory behavior of one year olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 113-136). London: Metheun.

Gallup, G. H., Moore, D. W., & Schussel, R. (1995). Disciplining children in America: A Gallup Poll Report. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.

Irving, John. (1999). The Cider House Rules. Modern Library: ISBN: 0679603352

 Lach, J. (1997). Facilitating developmental attachment: The road to emotional recover and behavioral change in foster and adopted children. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

 Levy, Terry, M. (editor). (2000). Handbook of Attachment Interventions. San Diego: California.

 Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, 572-585.

 Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 121-160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Perry, B. D., Pollard, R., Blakely, T., Baker, W., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4), 271-291.

Terr, L. A. (1991). Chihood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1-20.

The Cider House Rules. (1999). Miramax Films.

thanks for coming

Thanks for Coming!

Maureen Mack, Ph.D.

[email protected]

University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire

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