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Astronomy. Earth Science R. I. What is Astronomy?. Astronomy is the study of the Universe. A. Astronomical Measures. Long distances exist in space and are measured in Light Years.

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Astronomy

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Astronomy l.jpg
Astronomy

Earth Science R


I what is astronomy l.jpg
I. What is Astronomy?

Astronomy is the study of the Universe.


A astronomical measures l.jpg
A. Astronomical Measures

  • Long distances exist in space and are measured in

    Light Years.

  • A light year is the distance that light travels in one year at a velocity of 186,000 mps or 669,600,000 mph. That’s 5,865,696,000,000 miles in one year.

  • One Light Year = 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)


B galaxies l.jpg
B. Galaxies

  • A galaxy is a system of stars (billions).

  • There are three types.




Slide7 l.jpg

http://www.adg.us/images/A%20Barred%20Spiral%20Galaxy%20(1920x1200).jpghttp://www.adg.us/images/A%20Barred%20Spiral%20Galaxy%20(1920x1200).jpg


Slide8 l.jpg

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpghttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg


The milky way from earth l.jpg
The Milky Way from Earthhttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/209/mar31/milkyway.gif


The milky way from the hubble space telescope l.jpg
The Milky Way from the http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpgHubble Space Telescope


Our position in the milky way l.jpg
Our position in the Milky Wayhttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

http://www.ncsu.edu/project/agronauts/images/milky_way.jpg


Our nearest neighbor l.jpg
Our nearest neighbor…http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

The Andromeda Galaxy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:M31_Lanoue.png


B elliptical galaxies l.jpg
b. Elliptical Galaxieshttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

http://www.glyphweb.com/esky/_images/illustrations/galaxy.gif


C irregular galaxies l.jpg
c. Irregular Galaxieshttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

http://www.godandscience.org/images/irregulargalaxyngc1705.jpg


C the sun our closest star l.jpg
C. The Sun – Our Closest Starhttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

  • Energy from the Sun drives all weather and water processes on Earth

  • Temperature ranges from 6000 K at the surface to 12,000,000 K at the center.

  • The sun is composed of H & He.

  • Age is about 5 by and is expected to last another 5 by.


6 sunspots l.jpg
6. Sunspotshttp://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1999/25/images/a/formats/web.jpg

  • Cooler gases result in dark spots called sunspots.

  • Indicate that the sun does not rotate uniformly.

  • Occur in 11 year cycles.

  • Can alter Earth’s climate.

  • Are actually areas of cooler gases.


Slide17 l.jpg

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gifhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif


Checkpoint l.jpg
Checkpointhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

  • What is the fuel of the Sun?

    HYDROGEN


Sample questions l.jpg
Sample Questionshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

What type of star is Polaris?

RED GIANT

Two stars of the same color are plotted on an H-R diagram. Star A is more luminous than Star B. Correctly explain the reason for this difference.

Star A is larger than Star B


More sample questions l.jpg
More Sample Questionshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

Name a star that is cooler and many times larger than Earth’s Sun.

Betelguese

Compared to other groups of stars, the group that has low luminosity and low temperatures are the

Red Dwarfs


The electromagnetic spectrum of radiation l.jpg
The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radiationhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif


Checkpoint23 l.jpg
Checkpointhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

What does a shift in wavelength toward the red-light end of the visible spectrum tell us about the universe?

It is expanding

Name a star whose surface temperature is closest to the temperature of the boundary between Earth’s mantle and Core.

The Sun


Checkpoint24 l.jpg
Checkpointhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

Which type of electromagnetic energy is more intense?

ULTRAVIOLET

or

INFRARED


Ii the solar system l.jpg
II. The Solar Systemhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

  • How did the planets form?

     Planets’ characteristics are based on their distances from the Sun.

    Terrestrial Planets are mostly rock where heat drove off ice & gases.

    Jovian Planets are cooler and farther from the Suntherefore are mostly gas


A terrestrial planets l.jpg
A. Terrestrial Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

  • MERCURY

    No Moons.

    Period of Revolution = 88 days

    Period of Rotation = 59 days

    Temps = -180 to 430ºC

    No atmosphere.

    Difficult for us to see it being so close to the sun.

    The surface is “Frozen in time” like our Moon and Mars.


Terrestrial planets l.jpg
Terrestrial Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

2. VENUS

No Moons.

Period of Revolution = 224.7 days

Period of Rotation = 243 days

Temps = consistently >400ºC

The thickest atmosphere; mostly CO2 and the air pressure is 90x that of Earth: Greenhouse Effect

Surface of great mystery.

Extensive Volcanism.

Day is longer than a year.

Retrograde Motion


Terrestrial planets28 l.jpg
Terrestrial Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

3. EARTH

One Moon.

Period of Revolution = 365.26 days

Period of Rotation = ~24 hours

LIFE is supported in the Ecosphere region around the Sun (from Venus to Mars)

Oceans served as the breeding ground for life.

Oceans allow us to live comfortably in moderation


Terrestrial planets29 l.jpg
Terrestrial Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

4. MARS

Two Moons.

Period of Revolution = 687 days

Period of Rotation = ~25 hours

Temps reach 27 C

LIFE??

Polar Ice Caps


B jovian planets l.jpg
B. Jovian Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

5. JUPITER

Sixteen Moons.

Period of Revolution = 11.86 yrs

Period of Rotation = 9 hr, 50 min

A spinning top

Great Red Spot


Jovian planets l.jpg
Jovian Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

6. SATURN

Eighteen Moons.

Period of Revolution = 29.46 yrs

Period of Rotation = 10 hr, 14 min

Rings of Ice


Jovian planets32 l.jpg
Jovian Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

7. URANUS

Twenty-one Moons.

Period of Revolution = 84 yrs

Period of Rotation = 17 hr, 14 min

Rotating on it’s side in Retrograde Motion.


Jovian planets33 l.jpg
Jovian Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

8. NEPTUNE

Eight Moons.

Period of Revolution = 164.8 yrs

Period of Rotation = 16 hours

Temps as low as -210 C

Outermost planet in our solar system.

Faint rings.

Low energy from the sun leads to high winds.


Dwarf planets l.jpg
Dwarf Planetshttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

xx. PLUTO & CO.

Pluto itself has 2 moons.

Period of Revolution = 247.7 yrs

Period of Rotation = 6 days, 9 hrs

Oblong orbit disqualifies it as a planet

There are now eight similar objects beyond Neptune


Checkpoint36 l.jpg
Checkpointhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

  • Which planets if placed in water would float?

    SATURN

    Correctly compare the size, density and composition of Neptune to Earth.

    Neptune is larger, more gaseous and less dense


Checkpoint37 l.jpg
Checkpointhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/hotshots/2003_10_22/sunspot.gif

A major belt of asteroids is located between Mars and Jupiter. What is the average distance from the Sun to the Asteroids?

390 million km



Iii space objects l.jpg
III. Space Objects Astronomy

  • Asteroids – Left over debris

    An asteroid belt comprised of thousands of small rocks circles the sun between Mars and Jupiter.

    The asteroid Hermes nearly hit Earth in 1936. It could happen…


B comets l.jpg
B. Comets Astronomy

  • Large chunks of Ice moving at high velocities.

  • Have orbits of High Eccentricity. See p 42.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://starryskies.com/The_sky/events/meteors/comet.orbit.jpg&imgrefurl=http://starryskies.com/The_sky/events/meteors/origin.html&h=345&w=410&sz=12&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=Zcg5lacDm8BjnM:&tbnh=105&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3DComet%2Borbit%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D


C impact events l.jpg
C. Impact Events Astronomy

  • Craters are the result of impacts from extra-terrestrial objects.


Iv deep space phenomena l.jpg
IV. Deep Space Phenomena Astronomy

  • Scientists believe the universe started with the big bang, 15 to 20 million years ago. Clouds of H & He became galaxies and stars.


A life of a star l.jpg
A. Life of a Star Astronomy

  • Nebula – gas and dust cloud

  • Nuclear Fusion begins

  • As the star ages, it becomes a red giant

  • After the red giant collapses, it becomes a white dwarf.

  • Increased gravity results in a neutron star.

  • A neutron star may explode, resulting in a supernova.

  • A new star called a pulsar may form briefly and the increased gravity causes it to collapse forming a black hole.


Slide48 l.jpg

Nebula Astronomy

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-1697339589356701058&q=stellar+life



Slide50 l.jpg

White dwarf Astronomy


Slide51 l.jpg

Supernova Astronomy


Slide52 l.jpg

Black Holes Astronomy


Checkpoint53 l.jpg
Checkpoint Astronomy

Stars will undergo evolutionary changes over millions of years. Which sequence of events shows the predicted life of Earth’s Sun?

  • Yellow StarRed GiantBlack Hole

  • Yellow StarSupernovaBlack Hole

  • Yellow StarRed GiantWhite Dwarf

  • Yellow StarSupernovaBlack Dwarf


B apparent star motions l.jpg

  • Stars appear to move in different paths across the night sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.

  • Circumpolar – Stars that can be seen throughout the year, appear to circulate around Polaris.

  • Ecliptic – Stars that can only be seen during certain months of the year. They are “eclipsed” by the Sun.

B. Apparent Star Motions

PLAY

VIDEO


C the constellations l.jpg
C. The Constellations sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.

Constellations are patterns of stars in the sky. The zodiac of the month is eclipsed by the Sun.


Orion a winter constellation l.jpg
Orion, sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.A Winter Constellation

PLAY

VIDEO


Phases of the moon l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Waxing crescent l.jpg
Waxing Crescent sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Phases of the moon60 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


First quarter l.jpg
First Quarter sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Phases of the moon62 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Waxing gibbous l.jpg
Waxing Gibbous sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Phases of the moon64 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Full moon l.jpg
Full Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.

Once in a “Blue Moon”…?


Phases of the moon66 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Waning gibbous l.jpg
Waning Gibbous sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Phases of the moon68 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Third last quarter l.jpg
Third (Last) Quarter sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Phases of the moon70 l.jpg
Phases of the Moon sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


Waning crescent l.jpg
Waning Crescent sky, just like the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the course of one day.


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