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Home Page. Touch Screen to Begin. Amphibians. Minnesota. State parks. Division of Parks and Recreation Program Credits and Information. Home Page. Start Over. There are 3 kinds of Amphibians in Minnesota Touch around.. Can you find them?. ?. What is an Amphibian?

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Amphibians l.jpg

Home Page

Touch Screen to Begin

Amphibians

Minnesota

State parks

Division of Parks and Recreation

Program Credits and Information


There are 3 kinds of amphibians in minnesota touch around can you find them l.jpg

Home Page

Start Over

There are 3 kinds of Amphibians in MinnesotaTouch around.. Can you find them?

?

What is an Amphibian?

Touch Here to find out!


A frog l.jpg

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Amphibian

TOUCH

To View the

Herpetologist’s

Notes

About Frogs

A Frog!

You Found an Amphibian!


Slide4 l.jpg

Herpetologist: Ben A. Hopping

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Amphibian

FrogFacts

Amphibians of Minnesota:

MinnesotaFrogs

All About

Frogs!

TOUCH a tab to turn the page!

Amphibians


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Amphibian

Frogs are Amphibians!

*They are Cold-Blooded

They are the same temperature as

their surroundings. If it’s cold,

they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!

*They Lay Eggs

Depending on the species, a frog can

lay hundreds of eggs each year! They

can be found wrapped around lake-

bottom weeds or in shallow ponds.

*They Have 2 Lives

Frogs live in the water, but are adapted

to land (they have lungs and legs!)

Frogs hibernate in the winter. They burrow in lake bottoms, or under leaf litter or rotten logs.

MinnesotaFrogs

FrogFacts

Frogs breathe through their skin when they’re under water. Their slimy skin helps keeps their pores open!

Frogs eat bugs. Their long, thin tongue is attached to the front of their lower jaw and curls into their mouth.

Amphibians


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Amphibian

FrogFacts

Tree Frogs

Smaller than toads or true frogs, have toe pads, and webbed fingers.

True Frogs

Long-legged, narrow-wasted, & smooth-skinned. Fingers are not webbed.

MinnesotaFrogs

Cope’s Gray

Tree Frog

Gray

Tree Frog

Bullfrog

Green Frog

Spring Peeper

Northern

Cricket Frog

Northern

Leopard Frog

Pickerel Frog

Amphibians

Western

Chorus Frog

Mink Frog

Wood Frog

TOUCH a frog to learn more!


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FrogFacts

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Hear Call

Size: 3/4 - 1 1/4 inches (1.9-3.2 cm)

Voice: Short, loud, high-pitched peep. Many Peepers singing together sound like sleigh bells.

Identification: Tan with a dark X on its back.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Spring Peeper

Life stages: A single female can produce 800-1,000 eggs, which are laid singly or in clusters of two or three. Eggs are attached to vegetation and hatch in two to three days. Transformation occurs within eight weeks. Maturity is reached within one year.

Breeding habitat: Breeds in fishless, temporary wetlands associated with forested habitat.

Summer habitat: Forested areas, especially areas with brushy undergrowth. May be heard calling in the fall.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Body can withstand partial freezing.

Amphibians

Range map for Spring Peeper


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FrogFacts

Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)

Voice: A long, deep snore lasting several seconds and ending with a chuckling (chuck-chuck-chuck).

Identification: Brown or green with dark spots. Spots are rounded and have light borders. There are two color mutations of the leopard frog in Minnesota: the Burn's leopard frog which lacks spots, and the Kandiyohi leopard frog which has flecking between spots.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Northern Leopard Frog

Life stages: Females can lay more than 6,000 eggs which may vary from submerged egg masses in northern populations to a surface film of eggs in southern populations. The black eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation. Eggs hatch in 13-20 days and transform in 70-100 days. Sexual maturity is reached within two to four years.

Breeding habitat: Marshes, wetlands, and fishless ponds.

Summer habitat: A frog frequently found in grasslands, wet meadows, and forest edges. During the summer they may travel one to two miles from water.

Winter habitat: Aquatic.

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Hear Call

Amphibians

Range map for N. Leopard Frogs


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FrogFacts

Size: 3/4 - 1 1/4 inches (1.9-3.2 cm)

Voice: A short, ascending trill-like b-r-e-e-e, resembling a thumb drawn along the teeth of a comb. May call after cool summer rains.

Identification: Their individual ranges in the state are not clearly known. Skin color ranges from tan to shades of gray or red. Three dark stripes extend from the head down the back and an additional line runs through the eye. A white line extends along the upper lip.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Western Chorus Frog

Life stages: Females attach clumps of up to 100 eggs to vegetation. Eggs hatch within 18 days. Tadpoles transform within three months, becoming mature within one year.

Breeding habitat: Temporary shallow ponds, flooded fields, river backwaters, lake edges, and ditches.

Summer habitat: Associated with a variety of habitats, including urban environments, but often found in grasslands or forest edges.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial.

Range map

for W. Chorus Frog

Amphibians

Touch to

Hear Call


Cope s gray treefrog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 1 1/4 - 2 inches (3.2-5.1 cm)

Voice: A fast, metallic buzz like trill.

Identification: Closely resembles the Gray Treefrog and can only be distinguished in the field by their call. Coloration is normally solid green or mottled gray. Bright yellow-orange coloring on inner surface of hind legs. Large adhesive pads on tips of fingers and toes enable them to climb vegetation. Skin secretions may be irritating to the mucous membranes of human eyes and nose.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Cope’s Gray Treefrog

Life stages: Eggs are laid in loose clusters of up to 40 eggs and are attached to vegetation near the surface of the water. The eggs hatch in three to six days, transforming within two months. Sexual maturity is reached within two years.

Breeding habitat: Shallow wetlands. Wet meadows and shrub swamps.

Summer habitat: Prairie wetlands, shrub swamps, and woodlands. Also inhabits urban yards and may be seen clinging to windows on summer nights.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Body can withstand partial freezing.

Range map for Cope’s Gray Treefrogs

Amphibians

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Hear Call


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FrogFacts

Size: 1 1/4 - 2 inches (3.2-5.1 cm)

Voice: A musical, birdlike trill. The call is similar to the Cope's gray treefrog, but slower. They may call while perched in tree branches.

Identification: Closely resembles the Cope's gray treefrog and can only be distinguished in the field by their call. The gray treefrog has twice as many chromosomes as the Cope's gray treefrog.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Gray Treefrog

Life stages: Clusters of up to 30 eggs are attached to vegetation near the surface of the water. The eggs hatch in three to six days. Tadpoles transform within two months. Adults reach maturity within two years.

Breeding habitat: Shallow wetlands within or near forested habitat.

Summer habitat: Closely associated with woodland and forest habitats. Often found in residential areas where it may be seen on windows feeding on insects attracted to lights.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial.Body can withstand partial freezing.

Amphibians

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Hear Call

Range map for Gray Treefrogs


Northern cricket frog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 5/8 - 1 1/2 inches (1.6-3.8 cm)

Voice: A fast, repeated clicking, like two pebbles being struck together.

Identification: A tiny, warty, non-climbing treefrog. Toes are heavily webbed and toe pads are absent. Dark triangular spot between eyes is typically present.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Northern Cricket Frog

Life stages: One female can lay 200 eggs in surface clusters of 10 to 15 eggs each. Eggs are attached to vegetation in water. This species becomes sexually mature within one year.

Breeding habitat: Prefers to breed in wetlands and streams with adjacent mud flats and abundant emergent vegetation.

Summer habitat: Typically near water.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Little is known about overwintering habits of cricket frogs in Minnesota. Research in Illinois and Ohio indicates that this species overwinters in natural depressions such as holes or cracks.

Amphibians

Range map for N. Cricket Frogs


Bullfrog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 3 1/2 - 8 inches (9-20.3 cm). This is the largest North American frog.

Voice: A resonant series of deep bass notes sounding like rrr-uum or jug-o-rum.

Identification: Green skin coloration with yellow throat in males and white in females. No dorsolateral fold is present.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Bullfrog

Life stages: One female may lay up to 20,000 eggs in a surface film. Tadpoles require two years for transformation, and three additional years to reach maturity.

Breeding habitat: Breeding occurs in permanent bodies of water.

Summer habitat: This highly aquatic frog prefers large bodies of water such as lakes, ponds, sluggish streams, and backwaters of rivers. Although introduced local populations occur in several counties in central and southern Minnesota, this species is only native to the southeastern corner of the state.

Winter habitat: Aquatic.

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Hear Call

Amphibians

Range map for Bullfrogs


Green frog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 2 3/8 - 3 1/2 inches (6-9 cm)

Voice: A throaty gunk or boink, like the pluck of a loose banjo string. Often calls during day and night. The male has paired vocal pouches.

Identification: Coloration is similar to the bullfrog but may be more brown than green. Unlike bullfrogs, the dorsolateral fold is typically present in green frogs. Usually there is dark mottling under legs and head. Skin is smooth or finely granular.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Green Frog

Life stages: Up to 7,000 eggs are released on the water's surface. Most tadpoles overwinter the first year and transform the following summer. Maturity is reached in two years after transformation.

Breeding habitat: Breeds in permanent bodies of water.

Summer habitat: This highly aquatic species is often associated with streams and ditches, although it also inhabits shallow water of lakes and ponds.

Winter habitat: Aquatic, often in streams and ditches.

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Hear Call

Amphibians

Range map for Green frogs


Pickerel frog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 1 3/4 - 3 1/4 inches (4.5-8 cm)

Voice: Quiet, long drawn-out snore. Similar to the northern leopard frog, but lacking the chuckle at the end.

Identification: Similar to northern leopard frog but spots located between dorsolateral folds along the back are paired and rectangular, not rounded. Bright yellow coloration inside the thighs. Skin gland secretions make this frog distasteful to most potential predators.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Pickerel Frog

Life stages: Eggs are laid under water attached to vegetation in a globular mass. They hatch in about two weeks and transform in 60 to 80 days.

Breeding habitat: Backwaters of rivers and streams.

Summer habitat: Inhabits cool, clear water of wooded streams with a dense forest canopy. Feeds in grassy openings adjacent to streams.

Winter habitat: Aquatic, rivers and streams.

Range map for

Pickerel frogs

Amphibians


Wood frog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 2 - 2 3/4 inches (5.1-7 cm)

Voice: Often the first species heard calling in the spring. Their short chuckle is a harsh racket, racket, racket. Males have paired vocal sacs.

Identification: A dark, masklike patch extends backwards from the eyes. Skin coloration is typically brown, but can range from shades of reddish-brown to almost black. Prominent dorsolateral folds.

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Hear Call

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Wood Frog

Life stages: Large, dense globs of up to 3,000 eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation. Egg masses are often laid communally and hatch within three weeks. Tadpoles transform within six to nine weeks and reach maturity in two to four years.

Breeding habitat: Bogs, temporary forested wetlands, forested lakes, and streams.

Summer habitat: Occupies woodland and forest habitat, sometimes traveling a considerable distance from water.

Winter habitat: Terrestrial, tolerating partial freezing of body fluids. Overwinters in leaf litter of the forest floor.

Amphibians

Range map for Wood frogs


Mink frog l.jpg

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FrogFacts

Size: 2 -2 3/4 inches (5.1-7 cm)

Voice: A rapid cut, cut, cut resembling a hammer striking wood. When mink frogs call in chorus it sounds like horses' hooves on a cobblestone road. Males have paired vocal pouches.

Identification: Similar to the green frog, although dorsolateral folds may be absent, partial, or prominent. The skin produces a musky odor similar to the scent of a mink when the frog is handled.

(BACK)MinnesotaFrogs

Mink Frog

Life stages: Up to 4,000 eggs are laid in loose clusters. Tadpoles transform in one to two years, reaching maturity in two to three more years.

Breeding habitat: This highly aquatic frog breeds in permanent ponds and lakes of the north woods.

Summer habitat: Inhabits borders of forested ponds and lakes where water lilies are plentiful. Individuals frequently move about by hopping from pad to pad.

Winter habitat: Aquatic.

Range map for

Mink frogs

Amphibians


A toad l.jpg

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You Found an Amphibian!

A Toad!

TOUCH

to View the

Herpetologist’s

Notes

About Toads


Slide19 l.jpg

Herpetologist: Ruff N. Worty

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ToadFacts

Amphibians of Minnesota:

MinnesotaToads

All About

TOADS!

TOUCH a tab to turn the page!

Amphibians


Toad facts l.jpg

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Amphibian

Toads are Amphibians!

*They are Cold-Blooded

They are the same temperature as

their surroundings. If it’s cold,

they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!

*They Lay Eggs

Depending on the species, a toad can

lay hundreds of eggs each year! Their

eggs are laid in tubes, not masses.

*They Have 2 Lives

Toads are terrestrial. After they

transform from a tadpole, they live the

rest of their life on land.

Toads hibernate in the winter. They burrow under leaf litter or rotten logs.

MinnesotaToads

ToadFacts

Cool!

A toad can hold its call (which sounds like a rolling “r”) for up to 30 seconds! Can you hum for 30 seconds?

Toads eat bugs. Unlike frogs, they do not use their tongues, but chomp with their mouths, like us!

Amphibians


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ToadFacts

Toads

There are only 3 kinds of toads found in Minnesota. Have you seen any of these?

MinnesotaToads

American Toad

Canadian Toad

Great Plains Toad

Wow! This one is everywhere!

  • Note: Here are 5 ways toads differ from frogs!

  • The have shorter, thicker back legs

  • They don’t hop very far per jump

  • They eat with their mouth (not tongue)

  • They’re dry & bumpy, not slimy & smooth

  • They live in the woods, not the water!

Amphibians

TOUCH a toad to learn more!


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ToadFacts

Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)

Voice: A long, drawn-out, high-pitched, musical trill lasting up to 30 seconds. The male's vocal sac is round when inflated.

Identification: Skin coloration is typically brown or reddish. One or two warts are present in each of the large dark blotches on their back. The white chest usually has dark speckles. The parotoid gland is typically separated from the cranial ridge.

(BACK)MinnesotaToads

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Hear Call

American Toad

Life stages: Females lay up to 20,000 eggs which normally hatch within one week. Large schools of tiny, black tadpoles feed together along the edge of shallow wetlands, emerging as a mass of tiny toads within approximately six weeks. Maturity occurs in two to three years.

Breeding habitat: Temporary wetlands, swamps, shallow bays of lakes, and backwaters of rivers, streams and ditches.

Summer habitat: While this species is most often associated with forest and woodland habitat, it also occupies grasslands, yards, and gardens.

Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below frost line.

Range map for

American Toads

Amphibians


Canadian toad l.jpg

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ToadFacts

Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)

Voice: A clear trill very similar to the American Toad, but lower in pitch and shorter, lasting approximately five seconds. The male's vocal sac is round when inflated.

Identification: Very similar in appearance to the American toad, although the cranial ridge of adult Canadian toads fuses to form a large dome, called a boss, between the eyes.

(BACK)MinnesotaToads

Canadian Toad

Life stages: Females lay up to 20,000 eggs which typically hatch within one week. Tiny toads emerge within approximately six weeks.

Breeding habitat: Breeds in shallow wetlands, streams, and roadside ditches.

Summer habitat: More aquatic than most toads, typically found in or near the margins of prairie wetlands. Capable of tolerating extreme heat by remaining dormant for several days.

Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below frost line. This species often overwinters communally within small earth mounds, called mima mounds. These mounds may hold several hundred toads over the winter.

Range map for

Canadian Toads

Amphibians

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Hear Call


Great plains toad l.jpg

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ToadFacts

Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)

Voice: A loud, harsh, pulsating trill with a metallic quality. Often lasts 20 seconds or more. Sausage-shaped vocal sac.

Identification: Skin coloration is gray, brown, or greenish. It has large blotches which have a strongly contrasting white border. The blotches contain several small warts. The chest is white with no speckles. Cranial ridges form a V, spreading apart from the snout. Parotoid glands are smaller than those of the American and Canadian toads.

(BACK)MinnesotaToads

Life stages: Females may produce up to 20,000 eggs which hatch in two days. Tadpoles emerge within six weeks.

Breeding habitat: Breeding activity is triggered by warm, heavy rains. Large numbers of toads may gather to breed in shallow temporary wetlands, flooded fields, or backwaters of streams and ditches.

Summer habitat: An accomplished burrower, this species may hide underground during the day or for extended periods of extreme heat or drought. Prefers wide open spaces, occupying grasslands and agricultural fields of western Minnesota.

Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below frost line.

Great Plains Toad

Range map for

Great Plains Toads

Amphibians

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Hear Call


A salamander l.jpg

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You Found an Amphibian!

A Salamander!

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Herpetologist’s

Notes

About Salamanders


Slide26 l.jpg

Herpetologist: B. Crawling

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SalamanderFacts

Amphibians of Minnesota:

MinnesotaSalamanders

All About

Salamanders!

TOUCH a tab to turn the page!

Amphibians


Salamander facts l.jpg

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Salamanders are Amphibians!

*They are Cold-Blooded

They are the same temperature as

their surroundings. If it’s cold,

they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!

*They Lay Eggs

Salamanders lay their eggs in the

water, like frogs and toads.

*They Have 2 Lives

Salamanders are born looking like

tadpoles and breathing through gills.

As they grow, they develop lungs and

live under rocks and logs on land.

Salamanders eat anything from insects, and worms to dead fish and snails!

MinnesotaSalamanders

SalamanderFacts

Note: NEWTS are really a type of salamander! The only difference is that they are smaller, and have rougher, less slimy skin.

Amphibians


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SalamanderFacts

Salamanders

Don’t confuse salamanders with lizards! Lizards are reptiles: they lay their eggs on land, have scaly skin, and do not change body forms!

MinnesotaSalamanders

Blue-spotted Salamander

Eastern Red-backed Salamander

Four-toed Salamander

Note: Salamanders are most often seen in cool, moist, dark places!

Spotted Salamander

Tiger Salamander

Amphibians

TOUCH a salamander to learn more!


Tiger salamander l.jpg

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SalamanderFacts

The common Tiger salamander is black with yellow markings that are highly variable in size and shape. The belly of the Tiger salamander is greenish-brown. Adults dwell in burrows underground, surfacing to feed during the night or to move to or from breeding sites during rainy nights in early spring. Tiger salamanders are fairly common throughout much of Minnesota, occupying a variety of habitats.

(Back)MinnesotaSalamanders

Tiger Salamander

NOTE: Tiger Salamanders resemble Spotted Salamanders, a species recently documented in Minnesota. If you think you've seen Spotted Salamanders please e-mail Carol Hall (at carol.hall@dnr.state.mn.us) with information about the date and location of your observation. Please look closely to distinguish between the two species. When possible, please include a digital image of the salamander with both dorsal (top) and ventral (bottom) views.

Amphibians

Ventral (bottom) views of

Spotted Salamander (left) and Tiger Salamander (right)


Blue spotted salamander l.jpg

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SalamanderFacts

This is the most common salamander found in Minnesota woodlands. It is identified by bluish spots or flecks on a black to gray-black body. Although common in forested habitats, these small amphibians often go unnoticed because they spend much of their time under woody debris. As with most salamanders species, Blue-spotted Salamanders can't tolerate dry habitats. They eat a variety of insects, earthworms, spiders and snails.

(Back)MinnesotaSalamanders

Blue-spotted Salamander

Amphibians

Blue-spotted Salamander Eggs


Eastern red backed salamander l.jpg

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SalamanderFacts

The red to red-orange stripe running from the head to the tail of this salamander is distinctive. Their sides are dark, often with gray-blue spots. These small, thin salamanders are lung-less and breathe through their skin. Unlike most salamanders that spend at least part of their life in the water, Eastern red-backed salamanders are completely terrestrial.

(Back)MinnesotaSalamanders

Eastern Red-backedSalamander

Amphibians


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SalamanderFacts

Four-toed salamanders were documented for the first time in Minnesota in 1994. It is a secretive, small salamander up to 10 cm (4 inches) in length. It has only four toes on its front and hind feet.

Four-toed salamanders are typically found in small colonies. Adults inhabit mature hardwood forests. They find shelter in the forest floor under leaf litter, woody debris, rocks, and moss. Females lay eggs in sphagnum moss hummocks in shallow wetlands.

(Back)MinnesotaSalamanders

Four-toed Salamander

Amphibians


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SalamanderFacts

(Back)MinnesotaSalamanders

Spotted Salamander

This elusive species was documented in Minnesota in 2001 when seven egg masses were located in a shallow wetland within the Nemadji State Forest.

Spotted Salamander eggs are large, gelatinous, and in masses of 75 to 100 eggs.

Note: If you think you've seen Spotted Salamanders in Minnesota please e-mail Carol Hall (at carol.hall@dnr.state.mn.us) with information about the date and location of your observation. Please look closely at the salamander to distinguish it from the Tiger Salamander. When possible, please include a digital image of the salamander with both dorsal (top) and ventral

Amphibians


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Are Cold-blooded

Are Adapted to Land & Water

Frogs

They’re blood is not heated like ours. Instead they are the same temperature as their surroundings.

Look! We are always the same temperature. Frogs change depending on the weather!

=

=

Toads

=

Amphibians

(HotWarmCold)

Salamanders

Adults

Eggs

Amphibians

Tadpoles

Have 3 Life Stages

Lay Eggs in Water


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Program Editors:

Kacie Carlson, Naturalist, Lake Carlos State Park

Judy Thompson, Regional Naturalist, Central Region

Bryce Anderson, Interpretive Operations Coordinator, Minnesota DNR

Equipment Management:

Retta James-Gasser, Regional Naturalist, Northeast Region

Bryce Anderson, Interpretive Operations Coordinator, Minnesota DNR

Photos Provided By:

Cornell University: Calling, Food Chain, & Lifecycle Pictures

A.B. Sheldon: Spring Peeper, Leopard Frog, Pickerel Frog, Northern Cricket Frog,

Western Chorus Frog, American Toad, Great Plains Toad

J. Gerholdt.: Cope’s Gray Treefrog

D. Lawson Gerdes: Gray Treefrog

B. Oldfield: Bullfrog, Green Frog, Wood Frog, Mink Frog, Canadian Toad

Carroll Hall: All Salamander Pictures

Credits

Program Last Revised 12-16-2008

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Division of Parks and Recreation

500 Lafayette Road Box 39

St. Paul, Minnesota 55155

651-259-5600

www.mnstateparks.info


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