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The Thoracic Cavity. Boundaries of and Structures Within. Cavities. Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic Divided by Diaphragm Thoracic 2 Pleural Mediastinum. www.newworldencyclopedia.org. Serous membrane = Serosa.

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the thoracic cavity

The Thoracic Cavity

Boundaries of and Structures Within

cavities
Cavities
  • Dorsal body cavity
  • Ventral body cavity
    • Abdominopelvic
      • Abdominal
      • Pelvic
    • Divided by Diaphragm
    • Thoracic
      • 2 Pleural
      • Mediastinum

www.newworldencyclopedia.org

serous membrane serosa
Serous membrane = Serosa
  • Simple squamous epithelium + areolar connective tissue
  • 2 Layers
    • Outer layer = PARIETAL serosa
    • Inner layer = VISCERAL serosa
  • Between them = Serous Cavity containing Serous Fluid
    • Serous fluid is blood filtrate + secretions by 2 layers of membrane
    • Allows movement of organs with reduced friction
  • Types of Serous Membranes
    • Pleural = surrounds lungs
    • Pericardium = surrounds heart, slightly modified
    • Peritoneal = surrounds some abdominal organs
pleural cavities
Pleural Cavities
  • Surround the lungs
  • Pleural fluid secreted by pleural membranes
  • Holds layers together
  • Reduces friction of organs
  • Compartmentalization

pg 136

pleural cavities1
Pleural Cavities
  • 2 Layers
    • Parietal pleura (outer)
      • inner surface of thoracic wall
      • superior surface of diaphragm
      • lateral surface of mediastinum
    • Visceral pleura (inner)
      • root of lungs marks transition
      • external surface of lungs

pg 137

pleural abnormalities
Pleural Effusion

Excess fluid in the pleural cavity

More than 20X

Usually less than 1 ml of fluid

Pneumothorax

Air located in pleural space

Pleural Abnormalities

www.rcjournal.com

Pg 210

www.islamicboard.com

slide7

Divisions of Mediastinum

  • Superior (to heart)
    • Contains: thymus, cranial vena cava, trachea, esophagus
  • Inferior
    • Anterior (to heart)
      • Contains: thymus
    • Posterior (to heart)
      • Contains: aorta, esophagus,
      • trachea, bronchi, caudal vena cava
    • Middle
      • Contains: heart

pg 153

slide8

Boundaries of Mediastinum

  • Lateral
    • parietal pleura of lungs
  • Anterior
    • ventral parietal pleura
  • Posterior
    • dorsal parietal pleura
  • Superior
    • dome of the neck
  • Inferior
    • diaphragmatic pleura

pg 136

respiratory tract
Respiratory Tract
  • Upper Respiratory Tract
    • Superior to Larynx
  • Lower Respiratory Tract
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Primary Bronchi
    • Secondary Bronchi
    • Rest of Bronchial Tree
    • Lungs

pg 944

trachea windpipe
Trachea = windpipe
  • Starts at Larynx and travels through mediastinum
  • Located Anterior to Esophagus
  • Trachea terminates into 2 primary bronchi entering lungs
  • Walls contain 16-20 “C” shaped rings Hyaline Cartilage
  • Trachealis Muscle (smooth muscle and soft CT)
  • Layers (deep to superficial)
    • Mucosa = Ciliated Psuedostratified Epithelium
    • Submucosa- contains seromucous glands
    • Adventitia – made of connective tissue, contains cartilage rings

Pg 917

bronchial tree
Bronchial Tree
  • Primary (main) Bronchi
    • Bifurcation of trachea
    • Basically the same structure
    • Cartilage plates replace rings
    • Posterior to pulmonary vessels
    • Right is wider, vertical, shorter
  • Secondary (lobar) Bronchi
    • Each primary bronchi divides
    • Same structure as primary bronchi
    • Right lung has 3, Left has 2
  • Tertiary (segmental) Bronchi
  • Up to 23 divisions

pg 145

bronchial tree continued
Bronchial Tree (continued)
  • Bronchioles
    • further divisions, < 1 mm diameter
  • Terminal Bronchioles
    • further divisions, 0.5 mm diameter
  • Respiratory Zone
    • Respiratory Bronchioles
    • Alveolar Ducts
    • Alveolar Sacs
      • Terminal bunches of Alveoli
      • Respiratory exchange chamber
respiratory zone continued
Respiratory Zone (continued)
  • Lining the Walls of Alveoli
    • Respiratory Membrane
      • Type I cells = simple squamous epithelial cells
      • Basal lamina and fine areolar CT
      • Covered with capillaries and elastic fibers
    • Gas exchange
      • Oxygen into blood
      • Carbon Dioxide into alveoli
    • Type II cells = cuboidal epithelial cells
      • Secrete fluid containing surfactant
throughout bronchial tree
Throughout Bronchial Tree
  • Psuedostratified columnar changes to simple columnar to simple cuboidal
  • Cartilage rings replaced by cartilage plates once bronchi enter the lungs
  • Smooth muscle and Elastic fibers remain important
  • In Bronchioles
    • Ciliated mucosa disappears, replaced by macrophages in alveoli
    • Cartilage disappears
    • Smooth muscle forms bands around smallest bronchi and bronchioles (not found around alveoli)
lungs continued
LUNGS (continued)
  • Located in Pleural Compartments
  • Lateral to Mediastinum
  • Location
    • Apex posterior to clavicle
    • Base lays on Diaphragm
    • Costal Surface = Ant, Lat, Post surfaces contact ribs
  • Left Lung = 2 lobes
    • Upper
    • Lower
    • Oblique Fissure
    • Cardiac Notch
  • Right Lung = 3 lobes
    • Upper
    • Middle
    • Lower
    • Oblique fissure
    • Horizontal fissure

pg 145

lungs
LUNGS
  • Hilus- medial indentation
  • Root of Lung = structures enter each lung
    • 2 Pulmonary Veins = carries O2-rich blood from each lung to heart
    • 1 Pulmonary Artery = carries O2-poor blood to each lung
    • Primary Bronchus
    • Nerves

– Lymph Vessels

pg 141

specific location of lungs
Right Lung

1” above Rib 1

Crosses Costal Cartilage 6

Midclavicular at Rib 6

Midaxillary at Rib 8

Vertebral Border at Rib 10

Inferior border 2 rib widths above diaphragm

Left Lung

1” above Rib 1

Deep to Manubroclavicular joint

Midsternally to Rib 4

Jogs to left, continues to Rib 6

Midaxillary Rib 8

Vertebral Border at Rib 10

Specific Location of Lungs
lung lobes
Lung Lobes
  • Lobes are anatomically + functionally separate
  • Lung lobes divided into Lobules
    • Functionally separate
    • Separated by dense CT
    • Vary in size
  • Stroma = lung tissue
    • CT
    • Many elastic fibers

pg 155

esophagus
Esophagus
  • Esophagus
    • Pharynx to Stomach
    • Passes thru diaphragm at esophageal hiatus
    • Anterior to vertebrae, Posterior to trachea
  • Layers of Esophagus (deep to superficial)
    • Mucosa
      • Stratified squamous epithelium
      • Lamina propria (loose CT)
      • Muscularis mucosae
    • Submucosa
      • Loose connective tissue
      • Secretes mucus
    • Muscularis Externa
      • Circular/Longitudinal layers
      • Skeletal m, Mix, then Smooth m
    • Adventitia
      • Fibrous CT

pg 139

the diaphragm
The Diaphragm
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Dome-shaped (relaxed)
  • Flattens (contracts)
  • Divides thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
  • Attachments
    • O: Inferior Internal rib cage, Lumbar vertebrae (by crura)
    • I: Central tendon
  • Innervated by right + left PHRENIC Nerves

pg 114

action of the diaphragm
Action of the Diaphragm
  • Primary muscle of respiration (involuntary)
    • Contraction during inspiration
      • Increases volume of thoracic cavity
      • Decreases pressure of thoracic cavity
      • Air moves into lungs (highlow pressure)
  • Forced contraction (voluntary)
    • Used for defecation, urination, labor
      • Decreases volume of abdominal cavity
      • Increases pressure in abdominal cavity
      • Pushes on abdominal organs to move contents out

pg 114

thoracic cavity capacity is increased by
Thoracic Cavity Capacity is Increased by:
  • Contraction of diaphragm
  • Intercostal muscles elevate ribs
  • Rib elevation causes the sternum to move anteriorly

pg 113

openings of diaphragm
Openings of Diaphragm
  • PosteriorAnterior
  • Aortic Hiatus
    • Aorta
    • Azygos vein
    • Thoracic duct
  • Esophageal Hiatus
    • Esophagus
    • Vagus nerve
  • Caval Opening
    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Right Phrenic Nerves

pg 134

vena cava
Superior Vena Cava

in Superior mediastinum, right side

Receives blood from regions above diaphragm

Formed from Rt + Lft Brachiocephalic Veins cranially

Azygos Vein empties into it just superior to heart

Empties into Right Atrium

Inferior Vena Cava

in Inferior mediastinum (right side), runs through abdomen

Returns blood to heart from regions below diaphragm

Formed from Rt + Lft Common Iliac Veins

Empties into Right Atrium

Widest blood vessel in body

Vena Cava
veins of thoracic cavity
Veins of Thoracic Cavity
  • Vena Cavae
  • Azygos Vein
    • “unpaired”
    • right side of vertebral bodies (at level of T12)
    • runs superiorly
    • empties into Sup. Vena Cava
    • drains right posterior intercostal veins
    • Connects to hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos that drain left side

pg 131

slide26

The Lymphatic Vessels

  • Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at arteriole end of capillary beds, and return leaked blood proteins to blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take up water into bloodstream)
  • Lymph is moved through vessels
    • Pulse of nearby arteries
    • Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle
    • Regular movement of body (wiggling legs)
    • Muscle in Tunica Media
  • Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function
    • In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from intestine
    • Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle
    • Chyle goes to bloodstream
slide27

Lymphatic System…The Players:

  • Lymph- clear fluid from loose CT at capillaries
    • Contains small molecules of blood plasma, water, various ions, nutrient molecules, respiratory gases
  • Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries) 
  • Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, # valves)
  • Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands
  • Lymphatic trunks(convergence large collecting vessels)
  • Lymphatic ducts empty into veins of neck
lymphatic ducts
Lymphatic Ducts
  • Thoracic Duct
    • Receives lymph from large trunks in abdomen and thorax
    • Receives lymph from ducts of thoracic lymph nodes
    • Along vertebral bodies
    • Contain valves to ensure 1-way flow of lymph to lymph nodes
    • Drains into left Brachiocephalic Vein (or subclavian or int. jugular veins)

pg 132, 150

thymus gland
Thymus Gland
  • Lymphatic Organ
  • 2-lobed w/lobules
  • Sits on heart and great vessels
  • Immature lymphocytes mature into T-lymphocytes
  • Secretes Thymic Hormones: help T-lymphocytes gain immunocompetence
  • Decreases in size w/age
  • Functional tissue is replaced with fatty tissue

pg 183

thymus gland1
Increases in size during childhood

Decreases in size during adulthood

Contains lobes and lobules

Capsule

Cortex

Medulla

Thymus Gland
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