12 Weeks to TAKS- Week Eight:
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12 Weeks to TAKS- Week Eight: Objective 2 4b, 10a,b The Cell and Human Systems.

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12 Weeks to TAKS- Week Eight:

Objective 2 4b, 10a,b

The Cell and Human Systems


The Cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms. Cell contain organelles that perform the functions needed for life. All cells must maintain homeostasis (balance). They function in a very narrow range of temperature, pH, O2, CO2, food and waste.


Cell processes:(P=In plant cells, A= in animal cells, B= in both) Organelles involved are underlined.

Permeability- The cell contains a semi permeable lipid bilayer membrane that lets only certain substances in and out (B)

Diffusion- movement of particles from high to low concentration in the cell, helps bring in nutrients and dispose wastes (B)

Osmosis- movement of water across a cell membrane from high to low concentration (B)


Photosynthesis- using radiant energy from the sun to convert CO2 into glucose in the chloroplast (P)

Respiration- burning glucose in the mitochondria to produce energy in the form of ATP

Mitosis- cell reproduction: used for growth, repair, and maintenance

Meiosis- production of gametes (sex cells) used in reproduction


Protein synthesis- amino acids are joined together to make proteins like antibodies, enzymes and muscle on ribosome (B)

Storage- Vacuoles store water, food and dissolved minerals

Control- The nucleus contains the DNA blueprint that codes for the proteins of the cell (B)

Transport- the Endoplasmic Reticulum transports proteins to the golgi, where they are packaged and processed (B)


The Human Body must also maintain homeostasis. The organs of the body work together in organ systems to perform specific functions. Organ systems are often connected and work together to allow the body to function.


Circulatory:Heart, blood, and vessels: provides oxygen and food to tissues and removes wastes.

Digestive:Mouth, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, liver, pancreas: Uses enzymes to break down food into its building blocks and transport it to the blood stream, then removes the wastes.


NervousBrain, spinal cord, nerves: Control system of the body. Works with other systems to maintain homeostasis.

Endocrinepituitary, ovaries, testis, adrenal glands, thyroid: Produces hormones that circulate in the blood stream and tell other systems what to do.


Reproductive:Meiosis produces gametes in ovaries and testis. The remainder of the system either delivers them, or protects a developing fetus until birth.

Integumentary:Skin, hair, nails: Protection from infection, temperature control


Skeletal:Bones, ligaments, cartilage: Support and protection of organs. Provides an attachment for muscles.

RespiratoryNose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, alveoli: Brings O2 to circulatory system and removes CO2.

Muscular Muscles: Uses bones as simple machines to exert force on the body to create movement.


ExcretoryKidney, ureter, bladder, urethra : Takes nitrogenous waste from the blood stream for removal from the body.

ImmuneWhite blood cells (lymphocytes including T-cells and B-cells which make antibodies), lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils: Fights infection.


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