Smart grid utility challenges in the 21 st century
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Smart Grid Utility Challenges in the 21 st Century. Andrew Tang Smart Energy Web Pacific Gas and Electric Company September 18, 2009. Environmental Sustainability. Reasonable Cost. Reliable Service . Smart Grid. Balancing Competing Priorities. Peak Load is 2x greater than off-peak….

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Smart Grid Utility Challenges in the 21 st Century

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Smart grid utility challenges in the 21 st century

Smart GridUtility Challenges in the 21st Century

Andrew Tang

Smart Energy Web

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

September 18, 2009


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

Environmental Sustainability

Reasonable Cost

Reliable Service

Smart Grid

Balancing Competing Priorities


Challenges for the 21 st century utility

Peak Load is 2x greater than off-peak…

…leading to significant unutilized capacity

… and they are unpredictable

Wind and solar are non-coincident with peak demand…

Challenges for the 21st Century Utility

Key Utility Challenges:

- Keep electricity flowing reliably

- Integrate increasing amounts of distributed and intermittent resources

- Maintain a balanced system


Traditional end to end utility network balances supply and demand

Nuclear Power Plants

Natural Gas Generators

Transmission Lines

Distribution Substations

Hydro power plants

Customers

Traditional End-to-end Utility Network Balances Supply and Demand

Smart Grid functionality restores the balance


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

Nuclear Power Plants

Distributed storage

Natural Gas Generators

Transmission Lines

Rooftop Solar

Distribution Substations

Hydro power plants

Plug-in

Electric Vehicles

Customers

Wind Farms

Solar Farms

Large-scale Renewables and Distributed Resources Impact Supply and Demand Unpredictably…

… Driving the Need for a Smarter Grid

Smart Grid functionality restores the balance


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

A Smart Grid

  • Overlay with an “Intelligent” Infrastructure

  • Pervasive sensing and measurement devices

  • Pervasive control devices

  • Advanced data communications

  • Computing and information management

Smart

PowerPlants

Transmission

Networks

Substations

Distribution

Networks

Consumers


Utility scale storage resources

Utility-scale Storage Resources

Pumped Hydro

Compressed Air

Sodium-Sulfur (NAS) Battery

Zinc Bromine Flow Batteries

Flywheel


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

Rooftop PV

CCGT Power Plant

  • Tomorrow:

  • Utility-scale distributed storage backs up intermittent resources and time-shifts resource availability to coincide with demand

  • Distributed generation and distributed storage create a similar capability at the customer premise

Centralized Storage

Local Storage

Renewable Resource Integration

  • Today:

  • Clean, flexible, natural gas-fueled resources are currently necessary to back up intermittent resources

  • Significantly improved air emissions profile than retiring plants, but still fossil-fueled

Renewable Resource Generation


Smart grid foundation largest us smart meter deployment

Smart Grid Foundation:Largest US Smart Meter Deployment

  • Ubiquitous automated meter reading

    • 10 million meter upgrades by 2012

    • 3.5 million deployed to date

  • Frequent meter reads

    • daily for gas

    • hourly or 15 minute intervals for electric

  • Embedded in-premise network gateway device unlocks new opportunities

    • Customer energy management

    • Demand-side management

    • SmartCharging for PEVs


Paradigm shift customer energy management

Paradigm Shift: Customer Energy Management

Time-shifting Electricity

GWh

Time of Day

In-premise Network

AMI / Smart Grid


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

Online Energy Use Information

  • Secure customer access through PGE.com

  • Displays energy use by billing cycle, month, or week

  • Displays daily hourly electric use

  • Customer service reps able to view same graphs online


In premise network increasing levels of sophistication

In-premise Network:Increasing Levels of Sophistication

Advanced

Basic

Enhanced

  • Simple high-low indicator

  • More comprehensive in-home displays (usage, cost, time)

  • Programmable Communicating Thermostat (PCT)

  • Fully automated intelligent energy management system

  • Other automated/ programmable appliances

  • Electric vehicle charging

  • Distributed generation

  • Electric storage


Smart grid utility challenges in the 21st century

Targeting Dependable Reductionsin Electric Demand

Results from PG&E Auto-Demand Response Event, Summer 2008


Pev impact on utility operations will be significant

PEV Impact on Utility Operationswill be Significant

Larger number of BEVs coming to market

BEVs have extended range

100 miles

24 kWh

PHEV

15

40 miles

22

8 kWh

BEV

# of models announced

BEV

PHEV

BEV

PHEV

BEV=(full) battery electric vehicle; PHEV=plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

Electric mileage

Battery size (usable)

BEVs require higher charging capability

They represent substantial impact on the grid

20 hours

SF

2.0

San Ramon

6.5

Most BEVs will come with the ability to charge at 6.6 kW

Fresno

6.2

9 hours

Expected charging profile

Vacaville

5.3

4 hours

Rocklin

6.3

Berkeley

3.4

1.4kW

3.3kW

6.6kW

Avg. residential peak (summer, kW)

Rate of charge


Pevs charge on peak

PEVs Charge On-peak

When People Get Home

Note: Off peak period as defined in E9 (electric vehicle) rate

  • Ample generation in overnight periods

  • Most people return home during peak

  • TOU pricing may not be enough to incent behavior

    • We estimate only 3% of all electric vehicles in California are on TOU rate

ª Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels and the DOE/GSA Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST).


Hev density 2004 08 a tale of two cities

HEV Density “2004-08”– A Tale of Two Cities

Fresno CA:

  • New Registrations: 83K

  • HEV Registrations: 2K

  • 2.4% of light duty purchases HEVs

  • HEV zip code median: 11

Berkeley CA:

  • New registrations: 14K

  • HEV registrations: 2.5K

  • 18% of light duty purchases HEVs

  • HEV zip code median: 212

= 25 HEVs


Smartport network architecture

SmartPort Network Architecture

  • Intelligent Sub-meter

  • Charging profile

  • Demand response

  • CO2 credit calculation

  • Highway usage tax

xEV

AMI Smart Grid

Smart Garage

HAN

Cord

ZigBee

PLC – Homeplug

ZigBee

PLC – Homeplug

SAE J2836

PLC – Homeplug

SAE J1776


At pg e we are committed to sustainability

At PG&E, We Are Committed To Sustainability


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