Demand reduction in jamaica
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DEMAND REDUCTION IN JAMAICA. A BRIEF CASE STUDY. CARL STONE SURVEY 1991 . COCAINE & CRACK COCAINE ABUSE MALE FEMALE 1989 1991 1989 1991 % DRUG USE 3.02 2.75 0.12 0.09

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DEMAND REDUCTION IN JAMAICA

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Demand reduction in jamaica

DEMAND REDUCTION IN JAMAICA

A BRIEF CASE STUDY


Carl stone survey 1991

CARL STONE SURVEY 1991.

COCAINE & CRACK COCAINE ABUSE

MALE FEMALE

  • 1989 1991 1989 1991

    % DRUG USE 3.02 2.75 0.12 0.09

    Total (‘000 ) 21.4 19.2 .84 .63

    Recommended: That Demand Reduction programmes need to be intensified and expanded in the Urban and Tourism area where Drug dealers have apparently increased their aggressive marketing networks.


Integrated demand reduction

Integrated Demand Reduction

  • This is a multi-faceted, multi-pronged strategy or series of strategies working in synergy to Reduce The Costs And Effects Of Drug Abuse By Reducing The Demand For Licit And Illicit Drugs


Integrated demand reduction1

Integrated Demand Reduction

  • Demand Reduction focuses primarily on Education and Awareness Programmes

  • It also focuses on identifying prevailing risk factors that cause or lead to Drug Abuse

  • Activities, plans and programmes are formulated to reduce these risk factors

  • These Educational, Healthy Lifestyle, and Preventative Programmes are expected to result in a reduction in the demand for drugs.


Demand reduction measures 1

Demand Reduction Measures-1

  • Drug Education and Awareness Programme

  • Individual & Community Involvement

  • Economic Alternatives

  • Social & Cultural Programmes

  • Sports Programmes


Demand reduction measures 2

Demand Reduction Measures-2

  • Public Relations/Social Marketing

  • Health & Medical Measures

  • (Health Promotion)

  • Legal Reform

  • Security

  • Research & Development

  • International Cooperation


Demand reduction in jamaica

DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL MATRIX

INTER-MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE

NCDA COUNCIL MEMBERS

WORKING

COMMITTEES

NCDA BOARD OF MANAGEMENT

INTERNATIONAL

LINKAGES

DRUG ABUSE SECRETARIAT

THE COMMUNITY

CODACS

PARISHES

PARDACS

TREATMENT

&

REHAB


Role of the community in prevention

ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY IN PREVENTION

  • Identify the problems/weaknesses in the environment that will threaten the existing healthy lifestyle in their community.

  • Devise action plans to address these these problems

  • Identify all relevant resources that exist in that community

  • Identify community leadership which will facilitate the change process


Parish initiatives parish drug awareness committees pardacs

PARISH INITIATIVES PARISH DRUG AWARENESS COMMITTEES(PARDACS)

ROLE OF THE PARDACS

  • EDUCATION AND SENSITIZING INTEREST GROUPS IN THE PARISH ABOUT THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE

  • ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT PUBLIC FORA, PANEL DISCUSIONS AND DEBATES AS A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE PUBLIC ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE

  • SOME MEMBERS ARE TRAINED IN BASIC AND ADVANCED COUNSELLING AND ASSIST IN THE SOCIAL REINTEGRATION OF RECOVERING ADDICTS


1997 survey on patterns of substance abuse and use among post primary students in jamaica

1997 SURVEY ON PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND USE AMONG POST PRIMARY STUDENTS IN JAMAICA

  • GRADES 9 TO 13 WERE SURVEYED, APPROXIMATELY 8,000 QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED AMOUNG STUDENTS IN 63 SCHOOLS (ALL-AGE,SECONDARY AND TECHNICAL)

  • OVERALL RESULTS (COMPARISON BETWEEN 1987 AND 1997)

    DRUG19871997

    ( % OF SCHOOL POPULATION)

    CIGARETTES 29.I 27.2

    ALCOHOL 76.3 70.9

    MARIJUANA 19.8 26.9

    INHALANTS 15.8 15.8

    CRACK COCAINE 1.5 1.9

    TRANQUILIZERS 3.8 5.5


The e u funded national project

THE E.U FUNDED NATIONAL PROJECT

PROJECT OBJECTIVES:

  • REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AND OTHER UNHEALTHY BEHAVIOUR.

  • REDUCE THE DEMAND FOR DRUGS

  • PROMOTE HEALTHY LIFESTYLES

  • REDUCE YOUTH DELINQUENCY.


Outputs from e u project

OUTPUTS FROM E.U PROJECT

  • A NATIONAL SURVEY ON THE LEVEL OF DRUG ABUSE

  • FORMATION OF SIX NEW COMMUNITY DRUG AWARENESS COMMITTEES (CODACS)

  • A TOTAL OF 180 PERSONS FROM THESE NEW CODACS TRAINED TO IMPART INFORMATION ON DRUG ABUSE AND PROMOTE HEALTHY LIFESTYLES.

  • AN EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTION EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN SCHOOLS

  • 450 TEACHERS, 40 TEACHER TRAINERS, 75 GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS, 28 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION OFFICERS AND 60 EDUCATION OFFICERS TRAINED IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND 150 STUDENTS TRAINED AS PEER COUNSELLORS

  • EDUCATIONAL AND SUPPORT MATERIALS PRODUCED FOR TRAINING


Risk factors for drug abuse youth nida

Risk Factors for Drug Abuse – Youth(NIDA)

  • Ineffective Parenting

  • Chaotic Home Environment

  • Lack of Mutual Attachments/ Nurturing

  • Inappropriate behaviour in the classroom

  • Failure in school performance

  • Poor social coping skills

  • Affiliation with deviant peers

  • Perception of approval of drug using behaviours in the school, among peers and community environments.


Family issues

FAMILY ISSUES

  • Breakdown in the structure and patterns of families.

  • Poor parenting skills.

  • Diminished family life

  • Teenage parents.


Changing family systems

CHANGING FAMILY SYSTEMS

  • Extended family disturbed.

  • More persons living alone/ isolation.

  • Shifting values.


Psychosocial issues

PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES

  • Feeling of alienation

  • Feel inadequate, low self esteem, devalued sense of self and of life.

  • Male marginalization.

  • Distorted value system (supported by music, popular culture and attitude to minorities.)

  • Lack of a father figure.

  • Attitudes to authority/ police


Psychosocial issues contd

PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES contd.

  • High unemployment or unemployable

  • Lack of citizenship.

  • Lack of civic pride.

  • Lack of hope.


Disorders among youth

DISORDERS AMONG YOUTH

  • SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • DEPRESSION

  • VIOLENCE

  • IRRESPONSIBLE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR

    .

  • SUICIDE


National drug use 2002

NATIONAL DRUG USE 2002.

Excerpt from 2001 National Survey


Estimates of substance use and treatment needs

ESTIMATES OF SUBSTANCE USE AND TREATMENT NEEDS

  • 5.9% of population or 92,800 Jamaicans have alcohol related problems.

  • 7.9% of population or 124,000 Jamaicans have drug related problems.

  • 11.9% of population or 187,100 Jamaicans have either alcohol or drug related problems or both.

  • 19% of pop. meet the criteria for depression. Rates of depression highest among persons dependent on alcohol or illicit substances.


Estimates of treatment needs adolescent population 18 to 24 yrs

ESTIMATES OF TREATMENT NEEDS ADOLESCENT POPULATION( 18 TO 24 YRS )

ALCOHOL

  • 60.6% of population ever used

  • 44.2 % used in the month of survey.

  • 2.6% of adolescents abuse alcohol

  • 2.% are dependent on alcohol

    Nb.* 4.6% or 15,000 adolescents have alcohol related problems.


Estimates of treatment needs adolescent population 18 to 24 years

ESTIMATES OF TREATMENT NEEDS ADOLESCENT POPULATION(18 TO 24 YEARS)

Illicit Drugs

  • 26.5% used Ganja

  • 0.6% used Crack Cocaine

  • 10.2% or 33,500 adolescents have drug related problems.

    n.b.* 12.6% or 41,500 adolescents have both alcohol and drug related problems.


Ncda prevention programme

NCDA Prevention Programme

  • Community/Interest Group Engagement

  • Organizing for prevention programme/initiatives

  • Planning for ongoing prevention efforts

  • Training & Development of a cadre of persons to manage ongoing drug prevention programmes

  • Facilitates the ongoing work of the CODAC or interest group

  • Networkswith relevant agencies to support the work of the CODACS or interest groups


Types of prevention programmes

TYPES OF PREVENTION PROGRAMMES.

  • NCDA Prevention Education Programmes

    • PEP

    • Squeaky

    • READ & READ +

    • Lignum Vitae

    • Rosebud

    • Drug Education & Training Programmes

    • Sports Initiatives

    • Alternatives to Drug Abuse/Economic Programme

    • PARDAC/CODAC


Types of prevention programmes1

TYPES OF PREVENTION PROGRAMMES.


Types of prevention programmes2

TYPES OF PREVENTION PROGRAMMES.


Types of prevention programmes3

Types of Prevention Programmes.


Types of prevention programmes4

Types of Prevention Programmes.


O i d support to jamaica

O.I.D support to Jamaica

  • Rapid Assessment Surveys (R.A.S)

    Treatment and Rehabilitation

    Sentinel Sites

    Low Literacy Youth in School (squeaky)

  • Equipment

  • Data Sharing


Ncda epi siduc summary 2001 2003

NCDA EPI-SIDUC Summary2001-2003

  • Total of 1,242 clients seen in T&R Centres

    Age of First Use (onset drug)

    Drug 1-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-40+

    Alcohol 19 7 42 23 37 75 204

    Marijuana 20 109 57 61 63 82

    Tobacco 4 18 32 62 59 235

    Total of 410 clients or 33% of total seen identified Tobacco as the onset drug as compared with 389 clients or 31% who identified alcohol and 392 clients or 32% Marijuana as the onset drug.


Squeaky pretest knowledge of users

SQUEAKY PRETEST- KNOWLEDGE OF USERS


Challenges

Challenges

  • Internal data maximization

  • Epi-Sudic software upgrade

  • Ongoing feedback from OID


The way forward

The Way Forward

  • Improved data sharing

  • Upgrading software and hardware

  • Integrating methodologies


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