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Contemporary Security Management

Chapter 15

Emergency Management

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management



  • Disastermanagementor emergencymanagementis the term used to designate the efforts of communities or businesses to plan for and coordinate all personnel and materials required to either mitigate the effects of, or recover from, natural or man-made disasters, or acts of terrorism.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Emergency management process
Emergency Management Process


  • Emergency management is the process of preparing for, mitigating, responding to, and recovering from an emergency.

    • The emergency management function requires a master plan for all incidents that involve potential damage or destruction of critical asset such as sensitive data and IT equipment.

    • Emergency management is a dynamic process.

    • Planning, though critical, is not the only component.

    • Training, conducting drills, testing equipment and coordinating activities with the community are other important functions.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management



  • The overall objectives of emergency operations planning, should be to:

    • Foster a systematic approach to emergency management.

    • Support a capability for prompt coordinated response to emergencies and threats of all sizes simultaneously by all levels of the facility and corporate management.

    • Provide an assured continuity of management and delivery of essential services for the duration of the emergency.

    • Promote uniformity in principles, policies, concept of operations, and compatible departmental standard operating procedures that facilitate coordinated response.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

What is an emergency
What Is an Emergency?

  • An emergency is any unplanned event that can cause deaths or significant injuries to students, employees, customers or the public; or that can disrupt operations, cause physical or environmental damage, or threaten the facility's financial standing or public image. Obviously, numerous events can be "emergencies," including:

    • Fire

    • Hazardous materials incident

    • Flood or flash flood

    • Hurricane

    • Tornado

    • Winter storm

    • Earthquake

    • Communications failure

    • Radiological accident

    • Civil disturbance

    • Loss of key supplier or customer

    • Explosion

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities
Phases and personal activities

  • Emergency management consists of five phases:

    • Prevention

    • Mitigation

    • Preparedness

    • Response

    • Recovery

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities1
Phases and personal activities

  • Prevention

    • Focuses on preventing the human hazard, primarily from potential natural disasters or terrorist attacks.

    • Preventive measures are taken on both the domestic and international levels, designed to provide permanent protection from disasters.

    • Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards.

    • In January 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Hyogo framework
Hyogo Framework

  • The Hyogo Frameworkis a global blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts during the next decade.

  • Its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 - in lives, and in the social, economic, and environmental assets of communities and countries.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities2
Phases and personal activities

  • Mitigation

    • The action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something.

    • Personal mitigation is a key to national preparedness.

    • Preventive or mitigation measures take different forms for different types of disasters.

      • On a national level, governments might implement large scale mitigation measures.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities3
Phases and personal activities

  • Preparedness

    • Preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs.

    • Preparedness measures can take many forms including the construction of shelters, implementation of an emergency communication system, installation of warning devices, creation of back-up life-line services (e.g., power, water, sewage), and rehearsing evacuation plans.

    • Planning for all different types of events, and all magnitudes is of utmost importance, so that when a disaster does occur responders know exactly what their assignments are.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities4
Phases and personal activities

  • Response

    • The response phase of an emergency may commence with Search and Rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population.

    • This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organizations.

    • The National Response Framework is a United States government publication that explains responsibilities and expectations of government officials at the local, state, federal, and tribal levels.

      • It provides guidance on Emergency Support Functions which may be integrated in whole or parts to aid in the response and recovery process.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

External support agencies
External Support Agencies


  • Law enforcement

  • Firefighting

  • Emergency medial agencies

  • Local hospitals

  • Local government agencies

  • American red Cross

  • U.S. Public Health

  • Community communication center

  • Civil defense

  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

  • Consultants and others on retainer.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Phases and personal activities5
Phases and personal activities

  • Recovery

    • The recovery phase starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided.

    • The immediate goal of the recovery phase is to bring the affected area back to normalcy as quickly as possible.

    • During reconstruction it is recommended to consider the location or construction material of the property.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management


  • In 2007, Dr. Wayne Blanchard of FEMA’s Emergency Management Higher Education Project, convened a working group of emergency management practitioners and academics to consider principles of emergency management.

    • The group developed eight principles

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management


  • Comprehensive – consider and take into account all hazards, all phases, all stakeholders and all impacts relevant to disasters.

  • Progressive – anticipate future disasters and take preventive and preparatory measures to build disaster-resistant and disaster-resilient communities.

  • Risk-driven – use sound risk management principles (hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and resources.

  • Integrated – ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community.

  • Collaborative – create and sustain broad and sincere relationships among individuals and organizations to encourage trust, advocate a team atmosphere, build consensus, and facilitate communication.

  • Coordinated – synchronize the activities of all relevant stakeholders to achieve a common purpose.

  • Flexible – use creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challenges.

  • Professional – value a science and knowledge-based approach; based on education, training, experience, ethical practice, public stewardship and continuous improvement.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management


Principles of Emergency Management

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

National incident management system
National Incident Management System


  • TheNational Incident Management System(NIMS) is a standardized approach toincident managementdeveloped by the Department of Homeland Security.

  • The program was established in March of 2004, and is intended to facilitate coordination between all responders (including all levels of government with public, private, and nongovernmental organizations).

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

The national incident management system
The National Incident Management System


  • (NIMS) identifies concepts and principles that answer how to manage emergencies from preparedness to recovery regardless of their cause, size, location or complexity. 

  • NIMSprovides a consistent, nationwide approach and vocabulary for multiple agencies or jurisdictions to work together to build, sustain and deliver the core capabilities needed to achieve a secure and resilient nation.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

What is the national incident management system
What is the National Incident Management System?

  • Comprehensive, nationwide systematic approach to incident management

    • Core set of doctrine, concepts, principles, terminology and organizational processes for all hazards

    • Essential principles for a common operating picture and interoperability of communications and information management

    • Standardized resource management procedures for coordination among different jurisdictions and organizations

    • Scalableand applicable for all incidents

    • A dynamic system that promotes ongoing management and maintenance

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Key benefits of nims
Key benefits of NIMS

  • Enhances organizational and technological interoperability and cooperation

  • Provides a scalable and flexible framework with universal applicability

  • Promotes all-hazards preparedness

  • Enables a wide variety of organizations to participate effectively in emergency management/incident response

  • Institutionalizes professional emergency management/incident response practices

  • Reflects best practices and lessons learned

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Nims audience
NIMS Audience

  • NIMS is applicable to all incidents and all levels of stakeholders, including levels of government, private sector organizations, critical infrastructure owners and operators, nongovernmental organizations and all other organizations who assume a role in emergency management.

  • Elected and appointed officials and policy makers, who are responsible for jurisdictional policy decisions, must also have a clear understanding of NIMS to better serve their constituency.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Nims components
NIMS Components

  • Built on existing structures, such as theIncident Command System (ICS),NIMS creates a proactive system to assist those responding to incidents or planned events.

  • To unite the practice of emergency management and incident response throughout the country, NIMS focuses on five key areas, or components. These components link together and work in unison to form a larger and comprehensive incident management system.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Incident command system ics
Incident Command System (ICS)


  • The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach that:

    • Allows for the integration of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications operating within a common organizational structure.

    • Enables a coordinated response among various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both public and private.

    • Establishes common processes for planning and managing resources.

    • Unlike NIMS, which is a conceptual program, the ICS is a hands-on-program that determines response activities and implements them at the incident scene

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Nims components include
NIMS Components Include

  • Preparedness

  • Communications and Information Management

  • Resource Management

  • Command and Management

  • Ongoing Management and Maintenance

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

I preparedness cycle
IPreparedness Cycle

The Preparedness Cycle illustrates the essential activities for responding to an incident.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Ii communications and information management
IICommunications and Information Management

  • NIMS promotes the use of flexible communications and information systems

  • Built on the concepts of:

    • Common Operating Picture

    • Interoperability

    • Reliability, Scalability, and Portability

    • Resiliency and Redundancy

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iii resource management
IIIResource Management

  • NIMS describes standardized resource management practices such as typing, inventorying, organizing, and tracking

  • Allows for effective sharing and integration of critical resources across jurisdictions

  • Activating, Dispatching, and Deactivating those systems prior to, during, and after an incident

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iii resource management1
IIIResource Management

Resource Management during an incident is a finite process with a distinct beginning and ending specific to the needs of the particular incident.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iv command management
IV Command Management

  • NIMS enables effective and efficient incident management and coordination by providing a flexible, standardized incident management structure

  • This structure integrates three key organizational constructs:

    • Incident Command System

    • Multi-Agency Coordination System

    • Public Information

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iv command and management
IV Command and Management

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iv command and management1
IVCommand and Management

  • Multi-Agency Coordination System

    • Is a process that allows all levels of government to work together more effectively

    • Occurs across different disciplines

    • Can occur on a regular basis whenever personnel from different agencies interact

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Iv command management1
IV Command Management

  • Public Information

    • Consists of processes, procedures, and systems for communicating timely, accurate, and accessible information related to an incident

    • Public information functions must be coordinated and integrated across jurisdictions and across functional agencies

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

V ongoing management and maintenance
VOngoing Management and Maintenance

  • The FEMA National Integration Center (NIC) provides strategic direction, oversight, and coordination of NIMS

    • NIC coordinates ongoing maintenance and continuous refinement of NIMS concepts and principles

  • Committed to science and technology. Research and development results in continual improvement and refinement of NIMS

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Mutual aid and assistance agreements
Mutual Aid and Assistance Agreements


  • Mutual aid agreements and other types of assistance agreements facilitate the rapid sharing of emergency aid and resources among governments and organizations at all levels.

    • These can involve pre-existing agreements like the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) or may require the creation of new instruments to address emerging events or parties outside of existing compacts.

    • Depending on the nature and extent of an agreement, a state’s laws may govern the formation and operation of the mutual aid arrangement.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Mutual aid and assistance agreements1
Mutual Aid and Assistance Agreements


  • Mutual aid agreements (MAAs) and other types of arrangements to provide assistance before, during, and after an emergency event facilitate the rapid mobilization of personnel, equipment, and supplies.

    • The agreements can occur at multiple levels of government: between state/local agencies; between a state and localities in the state; between two or more states in a region; between states and tribes; or internationally between states and neighboring jurisdictions in Canada or Mexico.

    • MAAs can also exist among a variety of organizational types, including governments, nonprofit organizations, and private businesses.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Mutual aid and assistance agreements2
Mutual Aid and Assistance Agreements

  • Authority for Mutual Aid

    • Depending on the type of MAA, a state legislature may have to formally approve a state’s participation in the agreement and memorialize it in statute, such as in the case of EMAC (see below).

    • State law or regulation may also establish legal requirements that govern the creation and operation of aid and assistance agreements in the state generally.

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management

Chapter 15 - Emergency Management