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Classical Era. The Age of Enlightenment. Baroque Era Louis XIV, XV Frederick the Great Catherine the Great POWER WEALTH. Classical Era French and American Revolutions Middle class becomes more influential “The first law is to enjoy oneself.”. Things are a-changin’. The Enlightenment.

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classical era

Classical Era

The Age of Enlightenment

things are a changin
Baroque Era

Louis XIV, XV

Frederick the Great

Catherine the Great

POWER

WEALTH

Classical Era

French and American Revolutions

Middle class becomes more influential

“The first law is to enjoy oneself.”

Things are a-changin’
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • What’s IN?
    • rational, logical, empirical, reasoned
  • What’s OUT?
    • Status quo, supernatural (What comes into question?)
  • The “brotherhood of man” becomes a popular theme, and Freemasonry grows. Both of these are, to some degree, at odds with the principals of enlightenment thinking.
  • Contradiction, inconsistency, paradox = quite acceptable, almost the norm.
the classical era
The Classical Era
  • European society is becoming more cosmopolitan.
the classical era5
The Classical Era
  • “Classical,” “classic,” “classicism”= very broad terms; not particularly well suited to describe this time in history. Interest in clean, simple lines of classical Greek architecture may provide connection.
  • Approximately the 18th Century
classicism defined
Classicism Defined
  • The period of the ancient Greeks and Romans
  • A standard (enduring)
  • Genre of music
  • Time period

1750-1820

the classical era7
The Classical Era
  • Cultural, societal adolescence--much change (often violent) & growth
    • Industrial revolution:
      • move from agrarian to industrial economy
      • migration from country to cities
      • huge cities--e.g., 1800 Vienna = 250,000!!
    • American and French Revolutions:
      • Europe in turmoil caused by Napoleon’s expansionism after French Revolution
      • redefine relationship of government and people
the classical era8
The Classical Era
  • How is the relationship of government/aristocracy and common people redefined?
    • IndIvIdual becomes central. Government exists to serve ME;Ido not exist to serve government (and, no, I will NOT eat cake...).
    • The American and French Revolutions illustrate the point.
the rise of the middle class
The Rise of the Middle Class
  • a VIMP sociological process
    • industrialization produces more money for lower classes
    • eventually more “wealth” produces more leisure time
    • more leisure time leads to search for entertainment that produces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • fundamental changes in the arts:
    • music functions mostly as Entertainment (not worship as in Baroque era)
classical thinking
Classical Thinking
  • Reason was supreme
  • Sought the perfect society
    • Enlightenment
  • Beauty
  • Rules were valuable
rococo
Rococo
  • Emphasis on ultra beauty and nature
  • Less dramatic (more sweet) than Baroque
  • Themes: aimed at the wealthy class
    • Lighter, frivolous
    • Picnics, lovers, Greek gods
    • Portraits
art in the 18 th century
Art in the 18th Century
  • Baroque had been the style from 1600 to 1750
    • Elaborate, impressive
    • Show glory of church and/or state
  • New direction was disputed

Baroque

Classical (Simpler)

Rococo (Sweeter, nature)

jacques louis david
Jacques Louis David
  • Napoleon Crossing

the Alps

jacques louis david16
Jacques Louis David

Coronation of Napoleon

jacques louis david17
Jacques Louis David

Napoleon

in his study

sculpture and architecture
Sculpture and Architecture
  • Horatio Greenough
    • Washington

University of Virginia (Designer – T. Jefferson)

architecture
Architecture
  • Recalled ancient classical
  • U.S. Capital
  • Monticello
date data
Date data

Caravaggio, The Calling of St Matthew; Baroque beginnings

1600 –

1742 –

Handel’s Messiah oratorio

1776 – Amer. Rev.

1787 –

J.L. DavidDeath of Socrates(Mozart, Don Giovanni)

1789 – French Rev.

age of enlightenment

Age of Enlightenment

Literature and Philosophy

the enlightenment25
The Enlightenment
  • Application of the scientific method to social problems
  • Parallel to the scientific awakening
  • Foundation of Classical art and music
    • The world behaves according to patterns and these ought to be obeyed
basic premises
Basic Premises
  • Scientific method can answer fundamental questions about society
  • Human race can be educated and all people are important
    • Emergence of the middle class
  • Belief in God based on reason
growth of deism
Growth of Deism
  • Intellectuals believe in God but see him as a "watchmaker"
  • Deists skeptical of organized religion
    • Catholic church was attacked
  • Deists struggle with personal standards
  • Denial of providence (Voltaire) disputed by others (Pope, Rousseau)
  • Denial of evil
thomas hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
  • Empiricism

"All that is real is material, and what is not material is not real." – Hobbes

thomas hobbes29
Thomas Hobbes
  • Government

"[Early man was] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short... [and in a constant state of] warre, [living in] continual fear and danger of violent death.“ – Leviathan

    • Absolute monarchy sent by God to help mankind
    • Hobbes\' concepts used to justify colonialization
john locke
John Locke
  • The forefather of our forefathers
  • Attacked by Charles II
  • Friend of Newton
  • Influential in American

revolution

john locke31
John Locke
  • Government
    • Second treatise of Civil Government
    • Chaos without government
      • God gave mankind natural rights
        • Life, liberty, pursuit of property
      • Innate goodness of mankind led to formation of governments
      • Governments, which were formed by the people, must guarantee the rights of the people
        • People have a right to rebel against tyrannies
john locke32
John Locke
  • Theory of Knowledge
    • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    • Reasoning puts man above animals
    • Rejected concept that ideas are innate
    • Outer ideas from experience
    • Inner ideas from contemplation
    • Mankind can attain all knowledge
alexander pope
Alexander Pope
  • English Poet
  • Contributed to political thought and love of language
  • Believed that God was in control of the earth and that all things were ultimately for our good
  • Essay on Man
  • Essay on Criticism
    • Many famous sayings came from these books
slide34
“Trust not yourself; but your defects to know,

Make use of every friend – and every foe.

A little learning is a dangerous thing;”

– Alexander Pope from Essay on Criticism

jonathan swift
Jonathan Swift
  • Hated injustice
  • Politically active
  • Satirist
    • Gulliver’s Travels
    • A Modest Proposal…
slide36
“For of what use is freedom of thought if it does not produce freedom of action?”
  • Swift, “On Abolishing Christianity” (1708) [Quoted in Barzun, From Dawn to Decadence, 2000, p.273]
philosophe
Philosophe
  • French name for philosopher
  • Enlightenment reached height in France
voltaire
Voltaire
  • Pen name
  • Critical of Catholic church
  • Influenced others by letters
  • Denied writings to avoid problems
    • Exiled to England for a while
    • Returned to live on Swiss border
slide39
“The individual who persecutes another because he is not of the same opinion is nothing less than a monster.”
  • Voltaire
slide40
“I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
  • Voltaire
jean jacques rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Contest: "Does progress in the arts and sciences correspond with progress in morality?"
    • No!
    • As civilizations progress, they move away from morality
      • Examples: Romans, Greeks, Egyptians
      • Civilization itself leads away from true fundamentals
      • Technology and art give false desires
  • Social Contract
    • “Noble Savage”
jean jacques rousseau42
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Influence on French and American revolutions
    • "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
    • Invest all rights and liberties into a society
      • Compare to a corporation
denis diderot
Denis Diderot
  • Encyclopedia
    • Teach people how to think critically
    • Solicited articles from many experts
    • Controversial articles brought criticism
    • Overall, moved forward the ideas of Enlightenment
slide46
"The good of the people must be the great purpose of government. By the laws of nature and of reason, the governors are invested with power to that end. And the greatest good of the people is liberty. It is to the state what health is to the individual."

- Diderot in L\'Encyclopedie: Article on Government, quoted in Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p370.

immanuel kant
Immanuel Kant
  • From Germany
  • Strict habits
  • The Critique of Pure Reason and …Practical Reason
    • Weakness of Empiricism
    • Transcendentalism
      • Empiricism and other knowledge
      • Ex: infinity
  • Categorical Imperative
slide48
"You should behave with only those types of behavior that are dictated by the absolute nature of the basic principle on which the act is based."

"Act as if your actions would become a moral maxim (principle or model) for all others and at all times."

– From Immanuel Kant\'s Categorical Imperative

david hume
David Hume
  • Scottish philosopher
  • Leader of empiricism movement
  • Grew to distrust all
adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Scottish professor
  • Wealth of Nation (1776)

Free trade/capitalism

  • Devised capitalism
  • Laissez Faire la nature

Literally, "let do": a philosophy that advocates minimal government interference in the economy.

edward gibbon
Edward Gibbon
  • Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Urged reform in England
  • Anti-religious bias
effects of the enlightenment
Effects of the Enlightenment
  • England
    • Civil war and establishment of a limited monarchy
    • Anger in the colonies because they are treated differently than "mother England"
  • France
    • No immediate change but seething discontent that will lead to revolution
  • Other countries
    • Attempts to adopt Enlightenment principles
enlightened despots
Enlightened Despots
  • Frederick II of Prussia (r. 1740-1786)
    • Rebelled against father
    • Later developed finest army
    • Built Sans Souci (Potsdam)
    • Invited Voltaire to the court
enlightened despots54
Enlightened Despots
  • Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)
    • German born wife of Czar Peter III
    • Controlled government after Peter III’s accidental(?) death
    • Increased European culture in Russia
    • Peasant Reforms
    • Territorial Expansion
    • Corresponded with Diderot
enlightened despots55
Enlightened Despots
  • Gustav III of Sweden (r. 1771-1792)
    • Forced Parliament to accept new constitution
    • Stimulated literature
  • Charles III of Spain (r. 1759-1788)
    • Bourbon family
    • Improved life for Spanish
    • Suppressed Jesuits
maria theresa and joseph ii of austria r 1740 1780
Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria (r. 1740-1780)
  • 16 children
  • Economic reforms
  • Limited power of the Pope
  • Reduced power of the lords
  • Joseph abolished serfdom
  • Poland divided
enlightened despots vs absolute rulers
Focused on

improving country

Economic

reform

Sought advise

Reluctant to change

Economic disasters

Dictated

Enlightened Despots vs. Absolute Rulers
causes and attitudes
Causes and Attitudes
  • The Enlightenment
  • Anglophile feeling in France
  • The American Revolution
  • French system’s lack of change
    • Louis XVI clung to Absolutism
    • King’s response to the poor
    • Class resentment
    • Economic problems
first stage 1789 1793
First Stage (1789-1793)
  • King desired new tax to stabilize economy
  • Estates General (3 estates)
    • Not met for 150 years
    • Needed to meet
    • Certified by Parlement (high court)
    • Election in early 1789
  • Finally met in Spring 1789
    • 3rd Estate walked out
first stage
First Stage
  • National Assembly (1789-1793)
    • 3rd estate met in indoor tennis court
    • Resolved to stay in session until constitution could be written
    • King couldn\'t get money
    • King instructed 1st and 2nd estates to meet with National Assembly
    • 3rd estate doubled their numbers
    • 1st and 2nd sat on right, 3rd sat on left
    • Formed municipal government
first stage62
First Stage
  • Events at Bastille
    • July 14, 1789
    • Municipal government trying to get arms
  • Revolts in the countryside
actions of the national assembly
Actions of the National Assembly
  • Destruction of privilege
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • Secularization of the church
  • New constitution
second stage radical revolution
Second StageRadical revolution
  • Disillusionment of the lower class (inflation)
  • Girondists (moderates) had no strong leader
  • France drawn into war with Europe
  • Failure in wars (1st coalition, 1792-1797)
    • Moderates removed as leaders of National Assembly
    • Counter-revolutions
    • King and queen arrested
  • Jacobins take control
second stage reign of terror 1793 1794
Second StageReign of Terror (1793-1794)
  • Committee for Public Safety
  • France losing war with others in Europe
  • Reforms
    • Metric system
    • New calendar
    • Universal suffrage
    • Slavery eliminated
    • Paris commune
    • Land redistribution
    • Defaced churches
  • Guillotine
    • 20,000 die
    • King and queen die
third stage return of the moderates 1794 1799
Third Stage—Return of the moderates (1794-1799)
  • Thermidorian reaction
  • Counter-revolution
    • "Whiff of grapeshot"(1795)
  • Death of Marat, Danton, Robespierre
    • Moderates gained control of National Convention
  • Return of expatriate noblemen allowed (money)
  • National Assembly re-elected
  • Adoption of new constitution
    • Rule by the Directory
third stage return of the moderates
Third Stage—Return of the moderates
  • The Directory governed
  • Some military successes (Napoleon)
  • Directory criticized for poor leadership
  • Directory desperate for a popular leader
    • 2nd Coalition (1799-1801) formed
    • Napoleon invited to be consul
you went the wrong way old king louie by allan sherman
Louis the Sixteenth was the King of France in 1789.He was worse than Louis the Fifteenth.He was worse than Louis the Fourteenth.He was worse than Louis the Thirteenth.He was the worst since Louis the First.King Louis was living like a king,

but the people were living rotten.So the people, they started an uprising which they called theFrench Revolution, and of course you remember their battle cry, which will never be forgotten:

You went the wrong way, Old King Louie.You made the population cry.\'Cause all you did was sit and petWith Marie AntoinetteIn your place at Versailles.

And now the country\'s gone kablooie.So we are giving you the air.That oughta teach you not toSpend all your time fooling \'roundAt the Folies Bergere.

If you had been a nicer king,We wouldn\'t do a thing,But you were bad, you must admit.We\'re gonna take you and the QueenDown to the guillotine,And shorten you a little bit.

You came the wrong way, Old King Louie.And now you ain\'t got far to go.Too bad you won\'t be here to seeThat great big Eiffel Tower,Or Brigitte Bardot.

To you King Louie we say fooey.You disappointed all of France.But then what else could we expectFrom a king in silk stockingsAnd pink satin pants.

You filled your stomach with chop suey.And also crepe suzettes and steak.And when they told your wife MarieThat nobody had bread, she said"Let \'em eat cake."

We\'re gonna take you and the QueenDown to the guillotine,It\'s somewhere in the heart of town.And when that fella\'s throughWith what he\'s gonna do,You\'ll have no place to hang your crown.

You came the wrong way Old King Louie.Now we must put you on the shelf.That\'s why the people are revolting, \'cause Louie,You\'re pretty revolting yourself!

You Went The Wrong Way, Old King Louieby Allan Sherman
slide70
NOT

V.

slide71
NOT

HEART vs. HEAD

EMOTION vs. INTELLECT

IT’S ALL EMOTIONS – IT IS A QUESTION OF WHAT KINDS OF EMOTIONS

music of the classical era
Music of the Classical Era
  • Began: death of Bach
  • Ended: Beethoven (mid-life)
music changes to meet middle class needs
Music changes to meet Middle Class needs
  • more music-making in the home creates needs:
    • simpler music for less skilled musicians
    • music industry (instrument manufacture, publishing, performing organizations)
    • music education (instrument & voice lessons, composition, appreciation)
  • opera: characters and plots revolve around commoners, not the aristocracy or mythology as in the Baroque era. Plots often ridicule the aristocracy.
music in the classical era
Music in the Classical Era
  • Austria (particularly Vienna) and Germany are the cultural centers.
  • Patronage, an important music/economic institution in the mid-1700s breaks down by 1790. Why?
  • Concert Halls and opera houses flourish providing entertainment for middle class audiences.
  • Publishers influence what composers write.[Why? What is the connection to middle class music-making?]
music in the classical era75
Music in the Classical Era
  • Much more secular music is composed and performed. The religious fervor of earlier Baroque composers such as Bach is gone.
music in the classical era76
Music in the Classical Era
  • Function of Music: Entertainment
    • in the concert hall, opera hall, theater, estate drawing room
    • In the home--filler of leisure time (Gebrauchmusik, i.e., “useful” music.) [Useful for what?]
    • dancing is VIMP pastime
  • “Music must meet listeners where they are.”What are the implications of this statement?
ruminate on
Ruminate on...
  • patronage and
    • Haydn
    • Mozart
    • Beethoven
  • why the French Revolution and industrialization led to the demise of patronage.
  • why less complex music is favored in classical culture.
viennese classical style
Viennese Classical Style

Characteristics of the

Viennese Style

● Dedication to form

from Germany

● Strong melody

from Italy

Vienna

classicism in music
Classicism in Music
  • Viennesse School: Four Composers
    • Franz Joseph Haydn
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Franz Schubert
patronage system
Patronage System
  • Exchange of artistic services for
    • A place to live
    • A Salary
    • Clothes
    • Rank in Society
      • Depends on the patron.
      • Servant to aristocratic patronage.
music of the classical era81
Music of the Classical Era
  • Written for middle class
    • Non-sophisticated Listener
    • Simple and Melodic Themes
      • Bach: Fugue Mozart: Eine Kleine…
    • Large Room
      • Bach: Air Beethoven: 9th
    • Movements have beginning, middle, end
      • Bach: Brandenburg Beethoven: 5th
    • Easier to play
      • Bach: Fugue Beethoven: Für Elise
slide82
“I write my music in order that the weary and worn or the men burdened with affairs might enjoy a few minutes of solace and refreshment.”

— Haydn

structure of music
Structure of Music
  • Melody carried the interest
  • Form still needed to give meaning
    • Note power of the human voice
    • Instrumental music uses strong melody as power
style in classical music
Style in Classical Music
  • Melody – singable symmetrical, lyrical.
  • Harmony- diatonic, tonic to dominant relationships
  • Rhythm – regular and symmetrical
  • Texture- Homophonic with some polyphony at times.
  • Folk elements: national themes, folk themes, dances etc. used in instrumental works.
slide85
“There can be no art

without form.”

  • Igor Stravinsky
musical objectives
Musical Objectives
  • Explore major-minor system
  • Develop homophonic system
  • Focus on simple melody
  • Chords and cadences
  • Large structures
  • Cultivate human voice
  • Explore new instruments
stylistic transformations
STYLISTIC TRANSFORMATIONS

Introduction of a new instrument, the fortepiano

  • Contrasted with strings and winds
  • Favored by amateurs and rising middle class
  • Development of the “Accompanied Sonata”
music and literary analogy
Musical notes

Musical phrases

Musical themes

Musical movements

Symphonies

Letters

Words

Sentences

Chapters or short stories

Books

Music and Literary Analogy
forms of movements
Forms of Movements
  • Theme and Variation
  • Rondo
  • Minuet and Trio
  • Sonata-allegro form
forms of entire works
Forms of Entire Works
  • Concerto (expanded)
  • Symphony
music journalism
Music Journalism

CA 1790 Music Journalism exploded on the European scene.

“Intellect, intellect, intellect!” Herr Beethoven’s music is too complex. It isn’t musical entertainment; it’s intellectual “mind games.” Once again Beethoven wrote something that no one wants to hear.

He is known to have replied to one reporter,

“Of course you don’t understand it. I wrote the piece for future generations. They will understand and appreciate it.”

He was correct.

music of the classical era93
Music of the Classical Era
  • Characteristics (Viennese style)
    • Dedication to form
      • From the Germans
    • Strong melody
      • From the Italians
    • Homophonic

Vienna

overview
Overview

The SYMPHONY emerges

CHAMBER MUSIC emerges

OPERA continues & evolves

Three major composers: HAYDN MOZART BEETHOVEN

life time lines
LIFE-TIME-LINES

BEETHOVEN 1770-1827

MOZART 1756-1789

HAYDN 1732-1809

1770

1820

musical influences
Musical Influences
  • Influence of Turkish music (Janissary band) felt in Vienna and Berlin due to the amount of Turkish immigrants to Austria.
  • Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven wrote Turkish Marches.
  • Added percussion to orchestra
  • Bass drum, triangle, cymbals
  • Whirling dervish ceremony imitated in Beethoven
summary 18 th century
SUMMARY – 18TH CENTURY
  • IDEAS – Enlightenment & rationalist Criticism
  • ART – 3 genres: Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois (Genre)
  • MUSIC – Genres such as the SYMPHONY and the STRING QUARTET emerge, all emphasizing CLARITY of musical ideas and the organization of CONTRAST, exemplified by SONATA FORM
  • key composers: HAYDN, MOZART & early Beethoven
slide98
NOT

V.

HEART vs. HEAD

EMOTION vs. INTELLECT

slide99
NOT

IT’S ALL EMOTIONS – IT IS A QUESTION OF WHAT KINDS OF EMOTIONS

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