Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Presented By :. Pradeep Soni. 514a. Stavropol state medical academy Department of asu. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. transmitted during coitus or genital contact 1 in 4 will contract STD between 15-55 yrs of age

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Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Presented By :

Pradeep Soni

514a

Stavropol state medical academy

Department of asu


Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • transmitted during coitus or genital contact

  • 1 in 4 will contract STD between 15-55 yrs of age

  • require moist environments (“transitional zones”)


Sexually transmitted diseases

STDs

  • common areas of infection:

    • vulva, vagina urethra in females

    • penis, urethra in males

    • mouth, oral cavity, eyes, anus in both sexes

  • if untreated, can pass from transitional zone to other tissues

  • person usually has >1 STD as a time


Causes

Causes

  • BACTERIA :

    • single-celled, microscopic organisms

    • cause disease by producing toxins

    • can be prevented by vaccines; killed by antibiotics

  • Examples of bacterial STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis


Causes1

Causes

  • VIRUSES:

    • tiny, noncellular particle

    • has DNA or RNA core and a protein coat

    • parasitic (reproduces in host cell)

    • some can be prevented by vaccine

  • Examples of viral STDs:

    • Herpes genitalis, HPV, HIV

  • OTHERS: FUNGI, PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES


Chlamydia most prevalent bacterial std

Chlamydia (most prevalent bacterial STD)

  • caused by bacterium-like microorganism that lives inside cells

  • symptoms:

    • urinary tract infection in both males and females

    • yellowish vaginal discharge

    • Infected tissues become red, irritated

    • some may be asymptomatic (30% of males, 50-70% of females)


Sexually transmitted diseases

Chlamydia Life Cycle

Chlamydia Cervicitis


Chlamydia

Chlamydia

  • if left untreated, PID can result in females

  • untreated males can develop infertility (due to scarring of sex accessory tubes)

  • can be passed from pregnant woman to child during delivery > lung and eye infections in newborn

  • detected by tissue culture

  • treated with antibiotics (note: penicillin is ineffective)

  • association exists between chlamydia and cervical cancer


Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea

  • Bacterial STD

  • Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia


Syphilis

Syphilis

  • STD caused by bacterium

  • 1st epidemic: 15th century, W. Europe

  • bacterium thrives in moist regions

  • 9/10 cases due to transmission during coitus


Stages of syphilis primary stage

Stages of Syphilis:Primary stage

  • involves single sore (chancre) where bacteria 1st entered the body

  • appears 10-90 days after entry

  • heals in 1-5 weeks

  • afterwards, travels in blood, lymph to other parts of body


Primary syphilis chancre

Sores

Primary Syphilis Chancre


Secondary stage of syphilis

Secondary stage of syphilis

  • occurs 2 weeks - 6 months after primary stage

  • characterized by rash on upper body, arms, hands, spreads to other skin

  • larger bumps develop, burst (release lots of bacteria!)

  • doesn’t itch; painless

  • can also cause hair loss, sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle / joint pain, low fever

  • sometimes symptoms are overlooked

  • goes away in 2-6 weeks

  • enters latent stage


Secondary syphilis rash

Secondary Syphilis Rash


Latent stage of syphilis

Latent stage of syphilis

  • can last for years

  • has few or no symptoms

  • after 1 yr, bacteria can no longer be transmitted (except to fetus)

  • 1/2 never leave latent stage

  • 1/2 enter tertiary stage if not already treated with antibiotics


Tertiary stage of syphilis

Tertiary stage of syphilis

  • bacteria has invaded tissues throughout the body

  • causes large, tumor-like sores on skin, muscle, internal organs

  • greatly damages heart, valves

  • ultimately affects central nervous system > paralysis, blindness, psychotic behavior

  • 4000 die per year in U.S. due to advanced syphilis


Congenital syphilis

Congenital Syphilis

  • can be passed from mother to fetus at any stage of syphilis

  • placenta protects baby up to 6 mo.

  • then, bacteria enters fetal bloodstream:

    • 30% miscarry

    • 70% born with congenital syphilis and go through normal progression of disease

  • can severely damage developing tissues of newborn; many die


Diagnosis treatment of syphilis

Diagnosis / treatment of syphilis

  • Cultures; blood test for antibodies

  • several antibiotics are effective

  • curable, like gonorrhea

  • may cause permanent damage if tertiary stage is reached


Herpes genitalis

Herpes genitalis

  • most common viral STD (1 million in U.S. contract / year)

  • incurable

  • caused by herpes simplex type 2 virus

  • other herpes viruses exist (cause fever blisters, cold sores, chicken pox, infectious mononucleosis)

  • type 2 invades areas below the waist; type 1 invades above the waist

  • 20% of infections in genital region are due to type 1


Genital herpes simplex

Genital Herpes Simplex


Genital herpes simplex in females

Genital Herpes Simplex in Females


Herpes

Herpes

  • likewise, type 2 is sometimes found in mouth sores

  • condoms not 100% effective in preventing transmission

  • type 2 can be transmitted by nonsexual contact


Herpes symptoms

Herpes: Symptoms

  • Burning sensation followed by appearance of blisters

  • Blisters rupture in 1-2 days; become painful ulcers

  • Possible flu-like symptoms

  • in males > sores occur on penis

  • in females > on labia, clitoris, cervix, vagina, urethra, perineum


Herpes symptoms1

Herpes Symptoms

  • in both sexes: painful urination and coitus; sometimes fever and enlargement of lymph nodes

  • sores heal between 1-6 weeks

  • if virus comes into contact with eye, can cause blindness


Herpes transmission

Herpes: Transmission

  • even with no sores, virus is harbored within body in nerve cells near spinal cord

  • a person is most infectious when sores are present; transmission at other times?

  • sores can reappear throughout a persons lifetime


Herpes transmission1

Herpes: Transmission

  • triggers for recurrence:

    • sunlight

    • stress

    • menstruation

    • sex

  • sometimes, antibodies are developed that alleviate or stop recurrences


Herpes treatment

Herpes: Treatment

  • no cure for herpes

  • drugs can disrupt viral reproduction

  • some forms resistant

  • proper hygiene helps reduce spread

  • vaccine is currently being developed that decreases frequency of sore recurrence


Herpes1

Herpes

  • vaginal deliveries can result in infection of newborn:

    • 25% can develop blindness, brain damage

    • 25% develop skin lesions

  • rarely, virus can cross placenta


Human papilloma virus

Human papilloma virus

  • Over 70 strains

  • Some cause “venereal warts” -moist, soft, cauliflower-like bumps (within 3 weeks - 8 months)

  • appear on cervix, labia, vulva, perineum in females

  • on penis in males, urethra, scrotum

  • treated topically with dry ice, liquid nitrogen > warts dry up and fall off in a few days

  • warts may recur


Perianal wart

Perianal Wart


Hpv penile warts

HPV Penile Warts


Possible hpv on the tongue

Possible HPV on the Tongue


Human papilloma virus1

Human papilloma virus

  • major cause of cervical cancer (95% of cases associated with HPV)

  • also associated with cancer of the penis, vagina, anus


Sexually transmitted diseases

AIDS

  • AIDS = acquired immune deficiency syndrome:

    • condition is caught, not inherited

    • virus attacks immune system

    • certain infections, cancers occur in infected persons

  • caused by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)

  • live and reproduce in helper T cells

  • host cells die as viruses depart to infect other cells

  • consequence: decrease in helper T cells, which are necessary for stimulating antibody production by B cells and activity of killer T cells


Sexually transmitted diseases

AIDS

  • between 4.2 and 15 years, HIV infection leads to fullblown AIDs

  • stages:

    • “window period” (incubation period):

      • can be as long as six months

      • virus replicates slowly; no antibodies detected

    • “acute phase of HIV disease” (after seroconversion):

      • lasts 2-4 weeks

      • accompanied by flu-like illness (fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, weight loss)


Sexually transmitted diseases

AIDS

  • “asymptomatic phase”:

    • little or no symptoms

    • virus continues to replicate, destroy T cells

  • “symptomatic phase”:

    • opportunistic infections begin

    • examples: bacterial skin infections, diarrhea, fever, tuberculosis


Sexually transmitted diseases

AIDS

  • T cell count less than 200 cells per microliter of blood (normal is 900-1200 cells)

  • accompanied by one or more opportunistic infections:

    • pneumonia

    • neurological problems (meningitis, seizures)

    • cancers of skin, cervix, lymph nodes

    • death follows in about 2 years


Aids transmission of hiv

AIDS: Transmission of HIV

  • virus is present in bodily fluids: blood, semen, cervical and vaginal secretions

  • low levels also present in urine, saliva, tears (no evidence that virus can be transmitted by these fluids)

  • transmitted when contaminated fluid enters another’s body

  • risk of contraction is greatest in receptive partner during anal or vaginal intercourse

  • common modes of transmission: use of contaminated needles, sexual contact, during pregnancy


Aids transmission of hiv1

AIDS: Transmission of HIV

  • virus does not live long outside of the body

  • cannot be contracted from classroom activities, bathrooms, swimming pools, kissing, sharing food, coughing, sneezing, sweating, sharing utensils, giving blood


Pregnancy and hiv

Pregnancy and HIV

  • Use of protease inhibitors during pregnancy can reduce risk of infecting fetus (25% to 8%)

  • HIV-positive women are advised not to breastfeed


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