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Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Presented By :. Pradeep Soni. 514a. Stavropol state medical academy Department of asu. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. transmitted during coitus or genital contact 1 in 4 will contract STD between 15-55 yrs of age

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slide1

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Presented By :

Pradeep Soni

514a

Stavropol state medical academy

Department of asu

sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • transmitted during coitus or genital contact
  • 1 in 4 will contract STD between 15-55 yrs of age
  • require moist environments (“transitional zones”)
slide3
STDs
  • common areas of infection:
    • vulva, vagina urethra in females
    • penis, urethra in males
    • mouth, oral cavity, eyes, anus in both sexes
  • if untreated, can pass from transitional zone to other tissues
  • person usually has >1 STD as a time
causes
Causes
  • BACTERIA :
    • single-celled, microscopic organisms
    • cause disease by producing toxins
    • can be prevented by vaccines; killed by antibiotics
  • Examples of bacterial STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis
causes1
Causes
  • VIRUSES:
    • tiny, noncellular particle
    • has DNA or RNA core and a protein coat
    • parasitic (reproduces in host cell)
    • some can be prevented by vaccine
  • Examples of viral STDs:
    • Herpes genitalis, HPV, HIV
  • OTHERS: FUNGI, PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES
chlamydia most prevalent bacterial std
Chlamydia (most prevalent bacterial STD)
  • caused by bacterium-like microorganism that lives inside cells
  • symptoms:
    • urinary tract infection in both males and females
    • yellowish vaginal discharge
    • Infected tissues become red, irritated
    • some may be asymptomatic (30% of males, 50-70% of females)
slide7

Chlamydia Life Cycle

Chlamydia Cervicitis

chlamydia
Chlamydia
  • if left untreated, PID can result in females
  • untreated males can develop infertility (due to scarring of sex accessory tubes)
  • can be passed from pregnant woman to child during delivery > lung and eye infections in newborn
  • detected by tissue culture
  • treated with antibiotics (note: penicillin is ineffective)
  • association exists between chlamydia and cervical cancer
gonorrhea
Gonorrhea
  • Bacterial STD
  • Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia
syphilis
Syphilis
  • STD caused by bacterium
  • 1st epidemic: 15th century, W. Europe
  • bacterium thrives in moist regions
  • 9/10 cases due to transmission during coitus
stages of syphilis primary stage
Stages of Syphilis:Primary stage
  • involves single sore (chancre) where bacteria 1st entered the body
  • appears 10-90 days after entry
  • heals in 1-5 weeks
  • afterwards, travels in blood, lymph to other parts of body
secondary stage of syphilis
Secondary stage of syphilis
  • occurs 2 weeks - 6 months after primary stage
  • characterized by rash on upper body, arms, hands, spreads to other skin
  • larger bumps develop, burst (release lots of bacteria!)
  • doesn’t itch; painless
  • can also cause hair loss, sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle / joint pain, low fever
  • sometimes symptoms are overlooked
  • goes away in 2-6 weeks
  • enters latent stage
latent stage of syphilis
Latent stage of syphilis
  • can last for years
  • has few or no symptoms
  • after 1 yr, bacteria can no longer be transmitted (except to fetus)
  • 1/2 never leave latent stage
  • 1/2 enter tertiary stage if not already treated with antibiotics
tertiary stage of syphilis
Tertiary stage of syphilis
  • bacteria has invaded tissues throughout the body
  • causes large, tumor-like sores on skin, muscle, internal organs
  • greatly damages heart, valves
  • ultimately affects central nervous system > paralysis, blindness, psychotic behavior
  • 4000 die per year in U.S. due to advanced syphilis
congenital syphilis
Congenital Syphilis
  • can be passed from mother to fetus at any stage of syphilis
  • placenta protects baby up to 6 mo.
  • then, bacteria enters fetal bloodstream:
    • 30% miscarry
    • 70% born with congenital syphilis and go through normal progression of disease
  • can severely damage developing tissues of newborn; many die
diagnosis treatment of syphilis
Diagnosis / treatment of syphilis
  • Cultures; blood test for antibodies
  • several antibiotics are effective
  • curable, like gonorrhea
  • may cause permanent damage if tertiary stage is reached
herpes genitalis
Herpes genitalis
  • most common viral STD (1 million in U.S. contract / year)
  • incurable
  • caused by herpes simplex type 2 virus
  • other herpes viruses exist (cause fever blisters, cold sores, chicken pox, infectious mononucleosis)
  • type 2 invades areas below the waist; type 1 invades above the waist
  • 20% of infections in genital region are due to type 1
herpes
Herpes
  • likewise, type 2 is sometimes found in mouth sores
  • condoms not 100% effective in preventing transmission
  • type 2 can be transmitted by nonsexual contact
herpes symptoms
Herpes: Symptoms
  • Burning sensation followed by appearance of blisters
  • Blisters rupture in 1-2 days; become painful ulcers
  • Possible flu-like symptoms
  • in males > sores occur on penis
  • in females > on labia, clitoris, cervix, vagina, urethra, perineum
herpes symptoms1
Herpes Symptoms
  • in both sexes: painful urination and coitus; sometimes fever and enlargement of lymph nodes
  • sores heal between 1-6 weeks
  • if virus comes into contact with eye, can cause blindness
herpes transmission
Herpes: Transmission
  • even with no sores, virus is harbored within body in nerve cells near spinal cord
  • a person is most infectious when sores are present; transmission at other times?
  • sores can reappear throughout a persons lifetime
herpes transmission1
Herpes: Transmission
  • triggers for recurrence:
    • sunlight
    • stress
    • menstruation
    • sex
  • sometimes, antibodies are developed that alleviate or stop recurrences
herpes treatment
Herpes: Treatment
  • no cure for herpes
  • drugs can disrupt viral reproduction
  • some forms resistant
  • proper hygiene helps reduce spread
  • vaccine is currently being developed that decreases frequency of sore recurrence
herpes1
Herpes
  • vaginal deliveries can result in infection of newborn:
    • 25% can develop blindness, brain damage
    • 25% develop skin lesions
  • rarely, virus can cross placenta
human papilloma virus
Human papilloma virus
  • Over 70 strains
  • Some cause “venereal warts” -moist, soft, cauliflower-like bumps (within 3 weeks - 8 months)
  • appear on cervix, labia, vulva, perineum in females
  • on penis in males, urethra, scrotum
  • treated topically with dry ice, liquid nitrogen > warts dry up and fall off in a few days
  • warts may recur
human papilloma virus1
Human papilloma virus
  • major cause of cervical cancer (95% of cases associated with HPV)
  • also associated with cancer of the penis, vagina, anus
slide34
AIDS
  • AIDS = acquired immune deficiency syndrome:
    • condition is caught, not inherited
    • virus attacks immune system
    • certain infections, cancers occur in infected persons
  • caused by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)
  • live and reproduce in helper T cells
  • host cells die as viruses depart to infect other cells
  • consequence: decrease in helper T cells, which are necessary for stimulating antibody production by B cells and activity of killer T cells
slide35
AIDS
  • between 4.2 and 15 years, HIV infection leads to fullblown AIDs
  • stages:
    • “window period” (incubation period):
      • can be as long as six months
      • virus replicates slowly; no antibodies detected
    • “acute phase of HIV disease” (after seroconversion):
      • lasts 2-4 weeks
      • accompanied by flu-like illness (fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, weight loss)
slide36
AIDS
  • “asymptomatic phase”:
    • little or no symptoms
    • virus continues to replicate, destroy T cells
  • “symptomatic phase”:
    • opportunistic infections begin
    • examples: bacterial skin infections, diarrhea, fever, tuberculosis
slide37
AIDS
  • T cell count less than 200 cells per microliter of blood (normal is 900-1200 cells)
  • accompanied by one or more opportunistic infections:
      • pneumonia
      • neurological problems (meningitis, seizures)
      • cancers of skin, cervix, lymph nodes
      • death follows in about 2 years
aids transmission of hiv
AIDS: Transmission of HIV
  • virus is present in bodily fluids: blood, semen, cervical and vaginal secretions
  • low levels also present in urine, saliva, tears (no evidence that virus can be transmitted by these fluids)
  • transmitted when contaminated fluid enters another’s body
  • risk of contraction is greatest in receptive partner during anal or vaginal intercourse
  • common modes of transmission: use of contaminated needles, sexual contact, during pregnancy
aids transmission of hiv1
AIDS: Transmission of HIV
  • virus does not live long outside of the body
  • cannot be contracted from classroom activities, bathrooms, swimming pools, kissing, sharing food, coughing, sneezing, sweating, sharing utensils, giving blood
pregnancy and hiv
Pregnancy and HIV
  • Use of protease inhibitors during pregnancy can reduce risk of infecting fetus (25% to 8%)
  • HIV-positive women are advised not to breastfeed
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