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Unit 1 Review. There will be multiple choice, fill in the blank, short answer and essay questions. Hydrologic cycle . Also called the water cycle Sunlight heats water causing evaporation Hot water molecules rise into the atmosphere As they cool they condense to form clouds

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Unit 1 review

Unit 1 Review

There will be multiple choice, fill in the blank, short answer and essay questions.


Hydrologic cycle
Hydrologic cycle

  • Also called the water cycle

  • Sunlight heats water causing evaporation

  • Hot water molecules rise into the atmosphere

  • As they cool they condense to form clouds

  • When clouds become full the molecules fall as precipitation


Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen cycle

  • 78 % of earths atmosphere is nitrogen

  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert nitrogen into ammonia and nitrates

  • Plants absorb ammonia/nitrates through roots/ use to make amino acids/ proteins

  • Animals eat plants for amino acids/ proteins

  • Bacteria break down dead organisms and release the nitrogen back into atmosphere—denitrification

  • Humans have added extra nitrogen thru artificial fertilizers


Oxygen cycle
Oxygen cycle

  • 21 % of atmosphere is oxygen

  • Living organisms breathe in oxygen(O2) for cellular respiration

  • After breaking down glucose, Carbon dioxide(CO2) and water are released

  • Plants use the CO2 and H2O in photosynthesis to make glucose and O2

  • Air pollution traps O2 and forms ozone (O3)


Carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle

  • CO2-carbon dioxide is in atmosphere

  • Plants use CO2 in photosynthesis to make glucose

  • Animals eat plants and break down the glucose with cellular respiration, releasing some CO2 back into air. The rest is used to make all parts of the body.

  • When plants and animals die and are covered by layers of soil with pressure, they form fossil fuels which release CO2 when burned


Phosphorus cycle
Phosphorus cycle

  • Limestone rock is weathered by rain and wind, releasing phosphorus into the soil and water

  • Plants take phosphorus up through their roots

  • Animals eat plants, drink water and get phosphorus

  • Phosphorus is excreted in wastes of animals

  • Humans add extra phosphorus with artificial fertilizers


All energy comes from the sun
All energy comes from the sun

  • Food chain is 1 chain of organisms

  • Food web is all the interconnected chains in an ecosystem

  • Energy pyramid represents the different trophic levels and demonstrates how energy is lost as it moves up the levels





  • Autotroph—makes own food-producer

  • Heterotroph—eats something else-consumer

    • Herbivore—eats plants

    • Carnivore—eats other animals

    • Omnivore—eats both plants and animals

    • Detrivore—eats dead animals

    • Decomposer—breaks down organism to their basic nutrients


How can toxins move up a food chain
How can toxins move up a food chain?

  • When toxins are taken up by plants, they may be small amounts

  • As herbivores eat the plants the toxin levels increase slightly

  • As carnivores eat the herbivores toxins become more intense

  • As tertiary consumers eat carnivores, the toxins reach a deadly level and cause some type of harm--biomagnification


Human time line
Human time line

  • Hunter-gatherers: 10,000 ya; small nomadic tribes, ate berries, roots, small game, stalked large game; hunted many large mammals to extinction; burned prairies

  • Agricultural Rev: 2000 ya to 1850s; farmers; grew crops; small towns; domesticated animals; large families; hand drawn plows and wagons; deforestation

  • Industrial revolution: 1850’s to present; factories; large cities; mechanized equipment; steam engine; train; boat; car; smaller families; pollution


Developed vs developing
Developed vs Developing

  • Developed countries have good health care, high incomes, high standard of living, slow or stable birth rates

  • Developing countries have poor health conditions, low income, agricultural based economies, low standard of living, high birth rate, high death rate


Tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the Commons

  • When people have access to a “common” area, they abuse it

  • They over fish, over hunt, pollute it, trash it, deplete the natural resources

  • In order to have a public place, someone must create laws and police it. Set limits on things, fines for littering or polluting, etc.

  • Sustainability is when everyone can have what they need to live comfortably and not deplete our natural resources


Decomposers
Decomposers

  • Decomposers are necessary for all life to exist;

  • They break down organic matter back to its original molecules so it can be recycled and used again


Laws

  • Law of conservation of matter: matter can neither be created nor destroyed; it just changes form; chemical reactions—reactants equal products; matter is recycled through nutrient cycles.

  • Law of conservation of energy: energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it just changes forms; radiant to chemical to mechanical, to physical; energy is not recycled but lost in the system as heat--Entropy


Biotic vs abiotic
Biotic vs Abiotic

  • Biotic factors are any living or once living part of an ecosystem; plants animals, dead tree limbs, wood, leather, etc

  • Abiotic factors include non living things such as air water, temperature, rocks, soil, nutrients, pH, etc



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