All ip ran interworking
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CRMS. RNGW. RNAS. CSGW. CRMS. SMLC. SMLC. LMU. IP BTS. OMS. All-IP RAN interworking. IP RAN supports Rel 99 Iu (for WCDMA and GERAN ), Rel 97/99 A and Gb/IP, Rel 99 Iur for WCDMA Rel 99 Iur-g for GERAN Rel'5 Rel 97/99 terminals --> Full interoperation with installed networks.

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All ip ran interworking

CRMS

RNGW

RNAS

CSGW

CRMS

SMLC

SMLC

LMU

IP BTS

OMS

All-IP RAN interworking

  • IP RAN supports

    • Rel 99 Iu (for WCDMA and GERAN ),

    • Rel 97/99 A and Gb/IP,

    • Rel 99 Iur for WCDMA

    • Rel 99 Iur-g for GERAN Rel'5

    • Rel 97/99 terminals

      --> Full interoperation with installed networks

CN interface

Nokia All-IP RAN

UTRAN

Rel'99,

Rel4

BSS

any release

RNC

BSC

Rel 99

UTRAN

Iur

Iur-g for

GERAN

Rel'5 only

Iub

Abis


Traffic growth scenario

Traffic growth scenario

Optimized architecture/ products for these worlds ?

Bits/s BH / user

MBytes / user / day

~60/20/20 % traffic reference: best effort packet/ CS-voice/ RT packet data)

'application' bits over Air interface


All ip ran interworking

Radio NW Access Server

Common Radio Resource Server

O&M Server

Upgrades to Nokia UltraSite and MetroSite

EDGE / WCDMA Base Stations

A and Iu-cs

Nokia FlexiServer

Nokia CS Gateway

Gb

IP / ATM / MPLS transport

Iu-ps

Nokia RN Gateway

Multimode

All-IP Base Station

GSM/EDGE/WCDMA

WLAN

Nokia distributed All-IP RAN architecture

  • Multiradio architecture, with multimode All-IP BTS

  • User plane and Control plane separated to allow optimised handling

  • Dynamic association between BTS and Radio Access Servers

  • Radio interface performance critical functions located in the BTS, close to radio

  • Transport optimised by relocating functionalities


Core network gateways

Core Network Gateways

Platform: IPA2800

IuPS Cplane

IuPS Uplane

Platform: IP740

Platform: FlexiServer

Iu-CS

A

BSSAP/RANAP relay

RNAS

RNGW: RAN Gateway

RNGW Ctrl

CSGW Ctrl

CSGW: Circuit Switched Gateway

RNAS: RAN Access Server

BSSAP'/ RANAP'

Iu-PS

Ctrl

A/IP, Iu-CS/IP

Iu-PS

BSGW

UCF

BSGW

  • RNGW

  • RAN Gateway is the user plane gateway for IP traffic.

  • Micromobility anchor for Iu-PS Uplane

  • Firewall t.b.d.

  • RNAS

  • Radio Network Access Server is the control plane gateway for RAN-external signaling.

  • Micromobility anchor for Cplane (terminates the signaling bearer connections, and relays L3 messages)

  • Paging Server

  • O&M of CN interface (reset, overload)

  • RNGW and CSGW control

  • CSGW

  • Circuit Switched Gateway is the user plane gateway for non IP traffic

  • ATM to IP interworking (Iu-CS and Iur, both Cplane and Uplane

  • PCM to IP Interworking (A, Uplane and Cplane)

  • Transcoding

  • Micromobility anchor for A and Iu-CS Uplane


Ran common servers

RAN Common Servers

Common Resource

Management Server

Serving Mobile

Location Centre

O&M Server

Platform: FlexiServer

  • CRMS

  • Common Radio Resource Management Serverperforms RAN Wide Radio Resource Management (inter cell/layers/system)

  • Load sharing

  • Policy Management

  • Autotuning for load sharing between layer

  • OMS

  • O&M Servers performs RAN O&M functions

  • Connection to OSS

  • Logical O&M

  • System Info Broadcast

  • Configuration Manag.

  • Performance Manag.

  • Fault Manag.

  • Autotuning features

  • SMLC

  • Serving Mobile Location Center performs UE PositioningCalculations

  • Support of multiple positioning methods

  • Support of positioning request through 2G and 3G core

  • LMU control and O&M


All ip bts

  • UE Control Function

  • Termination of the CN signalling

  • Radio signalling (RR, RRC)

  • RAB Admission control

  • Handover control

  • Initialisation of dedicated resources in the network

  • Base Station Gateway

  • Termination of CN interface user plane

  • PDCP, RLC, MAC-d

  • MDC (Soft Handoff)

  • Ciphering

CN Cplane

CN Uplane

External Iur: one UE may use UCF/BSGW in Serving BTS, and CRS/CGW(L1) in drift BTS

ULTRA upgrade

RR

O&M

UCF BSGW

OMS

  • Cell Gateway

  • GERAN PCU

  • WCDMA PS for shared and HS data channel

  • Retransmission

  • Cell Resource Server

  • GRR protocol

  • Radio Admission control

  • Channel allocation and resource reservation

  • Load Control

(Iub / Abis)

BTS L1

LMU

SMLC

  • BS O&M

  • Termination of logical O&M interface

  • Implementation specific O&M

Location Measurement Unit

Could be external to the IP BTS

BTS L1: Same functionality of Rel'99 BTS and Node B

All-IP BTS

CRS CGW


All ip ran products

All-IP RAN products


High level bts integration

High level BTS integration

  • Example configuration

  • 3 sectored 2+2+2 solution

  • 384 code channels

  • multi-mode upgradeable

Expansion slots


Comparision rnc functionality in ip ran

RNC

RNC

RNC

CSGW

CSGW

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

CSGW

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNC

RNGW

RNGW

Comparision, RNC functionality in IP RAN

  • Assumptions based on Peritus y. 2008

    • PS traffic: 12174 Mbit/s

    • CS tarffic: 4870 Mbit/s

    • subscribers: 13,6 M

  • -> 168 rack s RNCs ( or 676 racks BSS11 BSC )

  • -> 5 racks RNAS

  • -> 30 racks CSGW

  • -> 15 racks RNGW

  • = 50 racks with IP RAN

RNAS

One rack = 10 racks


All ip indoor supreme bts

All-IP Indoor Supreme BTS

  • High Capacity All-IP BTS

  • Supports 1-9 sectored solutions

  • up to 36 WCDMA carriers per cabinet

  • up to 1152 code channels per cabinet

  • multi-mode capable with All-IP RAN rel. 2

  • ideal for multi-operator RAN

  • full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept

  • ideal for indoor installations

  • Co-siting with existing BTS sites

  • Dimensions H x W x D 1800 x 600 x 600 mm

  • Operating temperature range -40 … +50 C

  • Mains Supply -48 VDC or 230 VAC


All ip outdoor compact bts

All-IP Outdoor Compact BTS

  • High Capacity All-IP BTS

  • Supports 1-9 sectored solutions

  • up to 36 WCDMA carriers per cabinet

  • up to 1152 code channels per cabinet

  • multi-mode capable with All-IP RAN rel. 2

  • ideal for multi-operator RAN

  • full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept

  • ideal for outdoor installations

  • Co-siting with existing BTS sites

  • minimized site requirements due to small size

  • unobtrusive in roof top installations due to low cabinet height

  • Dimensions H x W x D 1500 x 770 x 770 mm

  • Operating temperature range -40 … +50 C

  • Mains Supply -48 VDC or 230 VAC


All ip upgrade to ultrasite wcdma bts

All-IP Upgrade to Ultrasite WCDMA BTS

  • Base station (BTS) software upgrade for new functionality:

  • Iub over IP in R4 network

  • All-IP RAN BTS in R5

  • Transport upgrade:

  • new IP router unit (IRIS),

  • reuse of RAN1/RAN2 IFUs (IP over ATM), or

  • introduction of new IP IFUs (no ATM)


All ip ran server configurations examples

All-IP RAN Server Configurations - Examples

OMS+RNAS+CRMS

( ca. 1.5M subs )

OMS+RNAS+CRMS+SMLC

( ca. 3 Msubs )

OMS+SMLC

(ca. 1.5M subs)

OMS+CRMS

( ca. 1M subs )

  • Flexible configuration of nodes to different server applications; max. 44 nodes per rack

  • Connectivity to 1000 IP-BTS, max. 6000 IP-RAN cells; Capacities/node estimates with current call-mix assumptions for 2008: RNAS 150k subs, CRMS: 250k subs, SMLC: 375k subs

HDD

OMS

RNAS

SMLC

CRMS


All ip ran servers server blades hw

All-IP RAN Servers - Server Blades HW

  • 9/11/12 nodes per subrack, two CPUs per node => 88 CPUs per rack

  • duplicated IP director per rack (one IP address, or very few addresses, visible to external network)

  • Pair of disks per rack (exact location in the rack FFS)

Up to 12 CPU slots

Chassis

Fan tray,displaypanel

Cabinet

2 x LAN switches & Fiber Channel hubs,System mgt functions

IP Director CPU

Disk Drive


All ip ran interworking

RNGW

  • IP740 platform

  • 19" racking

  • User plane throughput 44 Mbps per RNGW (200 byte packets), 150k RABs (max. 2.5k Handovers/s)

  • max. 18 RNGWs per rack => 792 Mbps and 2.7M RABs per rack


All ip ran interworking

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TSS3

MXU 0/ 0

SPMU / 0

(NEMU)

WDU / 0

WDU / 0

CACU / 0

OMU / 0

NIS1/ 0

SFU /0

NEMU

CM / 0

EHU

x

x

x

x

NIS0/ 0 /

MX622-B

CCP10

(NEMU)

CCP10

CCP10

MCPC2

CCP10

ESA12

(OMU)

EHAT

TBUF

SF10

HDS

HDS

PD20

x

x

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TBUF

MXU 0/ 1

SPMU / 1

NIS1/ 0

CACU / 1

WDU / 1

WDU / 1

OMU / 1

CM / 1

SFU /1

ISU

FDU

x

x

x

)

NIS0/ 0 /

CCP10

MX622-B

CCP10

(NEMU)

CCP10

OMU

CCP10

CCP10

(OMU)

SF10

PD20

TSS3

MDS

HDS

HDS

x

x

(

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TBUF

TBUF

A2SU

A2SU

IPNIU

TCU

A2SU

TCU

TCU

TCU

IWU

IWU

TCU

IWU

TCU

TCU

MXU

MXU

MXU

MXU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

ISU

ISU

x

x

x

IPS1/IPGE

MX622-B

MX622-B

MX622-B

MX622-B

IW16P1

IW16P1

IW16P1

CCP10

CCP10

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

TBUF

TBUF

PD20

PD20

AL2S

AL2S

AL2S

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TBUF

A2SU

A2SU

A2SU

IPNIU

TCU

TCU

MXU

TCU

TCU

MXU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

TCU

ISU

x

x

IPS1/IPGE

MX622-B

MX622-B

AL2SU

AL2SU

CCP10

AL2SU

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

CDSP

TBUF

PD20

x

CSGW

  • IPA2800 platform

  • 1800 * 600 * 600 mm (H*W*D) rack

  • 10 000 Iu-CS channels per rack

1 cabinet

10000 channels


Core site solution incl all ip ran servers

RNC

SDH/DWDM

OSR

LAN/WAN connectivity(IP/MPLS)

GSR

Core Site Solution ( incl. All-IP RAN Servers )

Core Site (IP/MPLS)

SGSN

HSS

CPS

MSC

Server

GGSN

MGW

RNGW

Inter-connects

CSGW

All-IP RAN

Servers

IP

ATM


Simulation on all ip ran gains

Simulation on All-IP RAN gains


Radio performance gains in all ip ran

Radio Performance gains in All-IP RAN

  • Introduction / Background

  • User Plane packet channel Gains

  • Control Plane packet channel Gains for Packet Services

  • Combined results

  • Other Potential Gains

  • Summary


Radio performance in all ip ran

Radio performance in All-IP RAN

-Setting up a session for a transport protocol (e.g. TCP) is quicker in IP RAN due to faster transport and smaller RLC RTT

- User experiences smaller delay in setup phase.

Router

All-IP BTS

Mobile

RLC

Transport Protocol

RLC

- Transport is based on fast IP routing in IP RAN.

- 'Information highway' ends in RNC in UTRAN, but lasts till IP BTS in IP RAN.

- Routing of a packet from CN to IP BTS takes only few ms.

No Iub in IP RAN -->

- Smaller RLC RTT

- quicker RLC retransmissions

- User experiences better bit rate for bursty traffic


Rlc and transport protocol

Rlc and transport protocol


All ip ran gains for packet services details on the transmission of a data burst

Minimum allocation time of channels

Channel Allocation Time Gain

User Plane Gain

Release Timer Gain

Control Plane Gain

User Plane Gain:

Shorter RLC RTT gives faster transmission

of user data.

Release Timer Gain:

Faster allocation time gives that the

release timer can be reduced.

Channel Allocation Time Gain:

Shorter allocation time of DCH/DSCH gives

higher availability of codes and increased capacity.

Control Plane Gain:

No Iub interface setup time, gives faster

setup of the DSCH and associated DCH

All-IP RAN Gains for Packet ServicesDetails on the transmission of a data burst

Iub Setup

Scheduling,

RF meas.

and pwr calc.

Transmission on DSCH

Release

Timer

Iub

Release

UTRAN

Scheduling,

RF meas.

and pwr calc.

Transmission on DSCH

Rel.

Timer

IP RAN

time

Start: Packet

scheduler decides

to use DSCH

transmission


User plane gains for packet services i

User Plane Gains for Packet Services (I)

  • Assumptions:

    • - TCP/IP traffic, e.g. web browsing, single object per page: TCP algorithms (slow start with 1 Maximum Segment Size initial window, MSS = 1460 B, delayed TCP acknowledgement)

    • - TCP session setup: 3-way handshake (3 messages, last setup message contains HTTP request)

    • - RLC RTT 140 ms for UTRAN and 70 ms for IP RAN

    • - Block Error Rate over radio 10%

    • - Constant user bitrate over the radio interface

    • - CN RTT 65 ms (web server very close to RAN). No server processing time.

  • Experienced Bit Rate: user bits / total TX time, without DSCH/DCH allocation delay

  • Gain (%): how much better experienced bit rate IP RAN gives compared to UTRAN with Iub interface

  • Result evaluated for WCDMA case, similar results for GERAN


User plane gains for packet services ii

User Plane Gains for Packet Services (II)

  • Gain depends, for example, on the allocated user bit rate, RLC BLER and the page size.

Page sizes

  • The smaller the page the more gain -> the gain in the beginning of downloading

  • The bigger the user bit rate the more gain -> the big bitpipe used more efficiently in All-IP RAN


Control plane gains for packet services i

Control Plane Gains for Packet Services (I)

  • The Control Plane (ex: allocation and release of radio channel, channel switch, etc) is more efficient in All-IP RAN than in UTRAN, mainly thanks to that there is no Iub interface.

  • The gain from the more efficient Control Plane is especially large for packet services, due to the frequent change of state.

  • Evaluation: Find the improvement in download time

    • for files of different sizes

    • for different user bit rates on the air interface

    • Assumption: Iub setup time=350msec, other parameters like in previous example.


Control plane gains for packet services ii

Control Plane Gains for Packet Services (II)

  • Note that the above gains are found within Control Plane alone

  • In general, the gain is between 10 and 30%.

  • Gain is highest for small files and high bit rates

  • For most common file sizes and user bit rates, the gain is about 20 - 25%


Combined user plane and control plane gains

Combined User Plane and Control Plane Gains

  • The combined User and Control plane results for Gain expressed in in terms of delay gains: -> DELAY REDUCTION UP TO 40 %


Other gains expected from optimization of rrm algorithm

Other gains expected from optimization of RRM algorithm

  • Note that HSDPA (High Speed Packet Access) is

  • going in the same direction as All-IP RAN:

  • HSDPA scheduling moved to Node B

  • However, solution more complex as scheduling

    • for other channels are kept in the RNC.

  • All-IP RAN overcomes this problem!

  • Reasons:

    • Measurements from UE and from IP BTS are available in the same node

    • RRM algorithms are preferably located as close as possible to the radio

    • Proprietary BTS measurement are available for new optimized RRM algorithms and capacity enhancing features (no need of 3GPP Iub standardization)

  • Example:

    • Imagine that an enhanced algorithm need a new measurement in the BTS.

    • In IP RAN, we implement it without waiting for 3GPP.

    • In UTRAN, this measurement needs to be standardised on the Iub interface, meaning that we need to merge our proposal with the opinions from other companies.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Users experience better service in All-IP RAN for packet data, with delay for the transmission of a packet reduced up to 40%

  • Reduced code allocation time.

  • Potential optimization of RRM algorithm without the burden of using the predefined Iub measurement


Case transport comparision

Case; transport comparision


Input parameters

Input parameters

  • IP Router Buffer Sizes:

    • Leaf BTS, 30 kbytes (leaf means last BTS in the tree topology)

    • Other BTSs, 100 kbytes


All ip ran interworking

DS

Rt_Core

27.66 Mbps

30.04 Mbps

DS

Rt_A1

1.92 Mbps

2.05 Mbps

DS

DS

2.21 Mbps

Rt_A

Rt_A2

DS

DS

2.05 Mbps

Rt_D1

DS

DS

Rt_B1

21.67 Mbps

Rt_E4

23.93 Mbps

2.05 Mbps

2.05 Mbps

DS

Rt_B

2.05 Mbps

2.05 Mbps

DS

2.05 Mbps

Rt_B2

DS

2.05 Mbps

Rt_E1

2.23 Mbps

4.70 Mbps

9.00 Mbps

8.61 Mbps

2.05 Mbps

DS

2.07 Mbps

Rt_E2

DS

DS

DS

2.05 Mbps

Rt_B3

Rt_F3

Rt_F

DS

DS

2.05 Mbps

Rt_C3

Rt_C

2.04 Mbps

2.22 Mbps

DS

2.19 Mbps

Rt_B4

2.05 Mbps

DS

2.05 Mbps

DS

Rt_B5

Rt_F2

DS

DS

DS

Rt_G1

Rt_C2

DS

Rt_C1

Rt_F1

  • IP RAN

  • 40% SHO OH for RT traffic only

  • IPv6

  • transport UDP/IP compressed

  • MDC in first starpoint

DS

Rt_D2

Rt_D

DS

Rt_E3

DS

Rt_E

DS

Rt_G


All ip ran interworking

  • RAN 1

  • 40% SHO OH for RT and NRT traffic

  • No Stat Mux gain

  • No centralised AAL2

42,6Mbps

46,86Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

38,34Mbps

4,26Mbps

34,08Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

12,78Mbps

12,78Mbps

8,52Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps


All ip ran interworking

  • RAN 2

  • 40% SHO OH for RT traffic only

  • Centralised AAL2

34.54Mbps

31.4Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

28.26Mbps

3, 14Mbps

25,12Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

9,42Mbps

9,42Mbps

6,28Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps


Comparison

Comparison

  • RAN2 with centralised AAL2 compared with RAN 1 saves 15% - 30% in capacity

  • 15% is here refered to modest and 40% aggressive case of saving with Centralised AAL2 of RAN2

  • Additional saving of RAN2 compared with RAN1 is the NRT traffic not having SHO OH

Comparison

against RAN1

Comparison

against RAN2 ( 15 % )


Common radio resource management

Common Radio Resource Management


Common radio resource management crrm

Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM)

Seamless integration of radio technologies to ensure optimum end user performance and resource usage

GSM/EDGE

Macro

WCDMA

GSM

GSM

Micro

WCDMA

WCDMA

GSM/EDGE

multi-mode

terminal

WLAN

WCDMA

Pico

TDD

  • Better capacity& quality level

    • Offer higher user bit rates and lower blocking

    • Enable load sharing and congestion control

    • Distribute interference

    • Enable multivendor RRM interoperability

  • Easier operability

    • Simple interworking in multi-vendor / multi-system environment


Crrm interfaces function

CRRM

Cell Loads & QoS

xRAN

Set HO Parameters

CRRM

Handover Candidates

xRAN

Prioritized List

CRRM Interfaces & Function

  • Nokia CRRM can connect to many different radio interface technologies

  • New standardisation is needed for an open multivendor CRRM interface

CRRM

server

RNC

IP-RAN

WCDMA

Other..

TDD, WLAN,..

GSM/EDGE

BSC

  • CRRM acts as an advisor to each system when making decisions

  • CRRM server is also the platform for other functions eg.

    • Setting idle mode parameters

    • Fast auto tuning


Crrm simulation results summary

CRRM Simulation Results - Summary

QoS class

Capacity gain

with 2 layers

Capacity gain

with 4 layers

Reason for the CRRM gain

  • CRRM is most important

    • for interactive connections

    • for high bit rate (>32 kbps) conversational and streaming connections

    • when large number of layers and systems are integrated

  • Note: these gains are fairly ideal gains assuming no delays in signaling etc. With proper CRRM algorithms most of these gains can be obtained in practice

Conversation

Streaming

No gain

32 kbps 3%

144 kbps 10%

384 kbps 30%

Timers are needed to prevent

ping-pong (and also useful

handovers) without CRRM

Interactive

40%-100% depending

on the required delay

70%-140% depending

on the required delay

No load reason inter-system

cell reselections assumed

without CRRM

Background

Less gain than with interactive

if no delay is guaranteed


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