Decolonization and nation building
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Decolonization and Nation Building. HIST 132 4 /8/13. Indian Nationalism. After 1858, emphasis on reducing ethnic, religious, and social divisions - Pan-Indian nationalism Combined Western ideas with traditional practices

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Decolonization and nation building

Decolonization andNation Building

HIST 132

4/8/13


Indian nationalism

Indian Nationalism

  • After 1858, emphasis on reducing ethnic, religious, and social divisions - Pan-Indian nationalism

  • Combined Western ideas with traditional practices

  • Many nationalists came from growing middle class, merchants and manufacturing.


Barriers to indian nationalism

Barriers to Indian Nationalism

  • Deep economic divisions

    • Rural: peasants – landowners – moneylenders – maharajahs (princes)

    • Urban: urban poor – laborers – craftsmen – merchants

  • Language: 1,652 dialects spoken in India,

    122 spoken by more than 10,000 people,

    29 spoken by more than 1 million

    • English as language of upper class

  • Religion:

    • Hinduism: division into 100s of

      occupational castes

    • Muslims: had ruled before British;

      ¼ of population

  • Gender


British rule and industrialization

British Rule and Industrialization

  • Colonial India governed by a

    British viceroy

  • Indian Civil Service: primarily

    British

  • Encouraged industrialization

    which benefited British rule

    (railroads, telegraphs, etc.)

  • Discouraged industrialization

    which would benefit India (cotton

    and steel industries, limited

    training of Indians, etc.)


India at the turn of the 20 th century

India at the turn of the 20th century

  • Despite famine and droughts (killing 2 million people from 1896-1900 alone), India’s population exploded.

  • 1900 = 250 million; 1941 = 389 million

  • Population growth placed new economic pressures on India

  • Despite deforestation and irrigation, not enough

    land available for peasants

  • Landless peasants moved

    to the cities, but there

    weren’t enough jobs

  • Conditions difficult for

    both rural and urban lower

    class.


Indian nationalism1

Indian Nationalism

  • Many Indians accepted British rule

  • Did not accept British racism

  • Macaulay’s Children and lack of access

  • Indian National Congress: Founded in 1885; increased access to government positions

  • Partition of Bengal

    • 1905: Lord Curzon divides Bengal into two

      provinces

    • Angers nationalists who were not consulted

    • Angers Hindu Bengalis who were now

      minorities in East Bengal

  • Demonstrations, boycotts of British goods,

    and violence


Divide and conquer

Divide and Conquer

  • All-India Muslim League: founded in 1906 to protect against Hindu domination

  • British grant limited rights to vote based on wealth

  • Muslims tended to be poorer than Hindus

    • Partially because many lower caste Hindus converted

  • British offer different voting qualifications for Hindus and Muslims

  • Shift capital from Calcutta

    to Delhi, former capital of Mughal

    Empire


Wwi and indian nationalism

WWI and Indian Nationalism

  • During WWI, 1.2 million Indians volunteered for the army

  • Millions more contributed money to support British cause

  • Feeling that British would grant political concessions for loyalty

  • 1917: Announcement

    of the development of

    self-governing institutions,

    but vague


The amritsar massacre 1919

The Amritsar Massacre, 1919

  • April 13, 1919: General Reginald Dyer orders British troops to fire on peaceful protestors in the city of Amritsar

  • At least 370 killed, 1,200 wounded

  • Protests sweep across India

  • British House of Lords vote to approve of Dyer’s actions

  • A fund established to raise

    money in appreciation of Dyer’s

    service.


Mahatma gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi

  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)

  • “Mahatma” = “great soul”

  • English educated

  • Lawyer for Indian community in South Africa

  • 1915: Joined Indian National Congress

  • Preached ahimsa (non-violence)

    and satyagraha (truth-force)

  • Famous for organizing non-violent,

    non-cooperation protests against

    British rule


Gandhi

Gandhi

  • 1921: Gandhi gives up both Western style dress and upper class Indian style

  • Wears a length of homespun cloth and a shawl

  • Pushes independence movement as a

    mass movement by speaking to the

    harijan (Children of God) or the poor

    and outcaste

  • Protests include encouraging

    homespun cloth and gathering salt

    from the sea.

  • How are these effective protests?


Gandhi indian home rule

Gandhi “Indian Home Rule”

  • Some questions to consider when reading:

  • How does Gandhi see India receiving its independence?

  • How does he see India responding after independence?

  • What would Gandhi like to see

    the British do?


Move to home rule

Move to Home Rule

  • 1920s: British begin offering India control over “national” areas; education, economy, and public works.

  • Increase enrollment of Indians in the Civil Service

  • India able to impose tariffs against imports,

    including British imports, giving Indian

    industry a needed boost.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964): Gandhi’s

    designated successor as leader of Indian

    National Congress

    • Appealed to middle and upper class Indians

    • Wanted to push India as a modern industrial

      nation


Independence

Independence

  • Britain did not consult a single Indian when committing India to World War II

  • Provincial governments dominated by Indian National Congress quit en masse.

  • Push for full independence; “Quit India”

  • After the war, British Labour Party prepared for independence.

  • In the British Government

    Statement: Policy in

    India, 1946, what is the

    British government most

    concerned about?


Nehru speech on the granting of indian independence 1947

Nehru, Speech on the Granting of Indian Independence, 1947

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wUcw8Ufx_Y

  • What does Nehru say about the future of India?

  • How does he relate India to the rest of the world?


Partition

Partition

  • 1937: Indian National Congress won provincial elections but refused to share power with the Muslim League

  • 1940: Muhammad Ali Jinnah (leader of Muslim League) demands an independent Pakistan

  • As independence approached, violence and rioting broke out between Hindus and Muslims

  • Gandhi’s appeals for tolerance

    went unheard

  • British calls for unification were

    ignored.


Partition1

Partition

  • 1947: Indian National Congress accepts partition of Indian into secular, Hindu dominated India and Muslim Pakistan

  • Midnight August 15, 1947: India and Pakistan gain independence

  • Nehru and Jinnah become first leaders.

  • Violent outbreaks as Muslims moved north and Hindus

    moved south

  • 12 million people relocated

  • Trainloads of refugees

    attacked and killed

  • Train to Pakistan:

    Khushwant Singh


Kashmir

Kashmir

  • After partition, only one Muslim majority province remains a part of India, Kashmir

  • Most inhabitants of Kashmir would

    have voted to join Pakistan,

    but they were not allowed to.

  • Continues to be a source

    of conflict between India

    and Pakistan today…


Africa french north africa

Africa: French North Africa

  • 1952-1956: France grants independence to Morocco and Tunisia

  • Algeria is a different story…

    • 150 years of French rule

    • French settlement (10% of

      population)

    • Political rights to settlers

    • Fiction of integration with French

      nation

    • Like India, little real benefit…

  • Vietnamese success provokes

    Algerian response.


Battle for algiers

Battle for Algiers

  • Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN): supported by Egypt and other Arab countries, interested in liberation of all Arab nations

  • French colonists see Algeria as theirs and fight brutally until very end.

  • Battle for Algiers (1966)

  • 1962: Algerian

    independence

  • Colonists return to France

  • Despite long war for

    independence, strong ties

    remain between Algeria and

    France


Sub saharan africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Independence through negotiation.

  • Like in India, leaders of independence movements often Western educated

  • Colonial organizations (schools, bureaucracies, labor

    associations) and imposed

    languages brought unity to

    independence movements.

  • Population growth added

    a youth movement to

    independence movement.


Kwame nkrumah and ghana

Kwame Nkrumah and Ghana

  • Studied in U.S. (philosophy and theology) and connects with black pride and independence ideologies of W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey

  • West African Secretariat:

    Pan-Africanist movement

    for decolonization

  • 1947: Returns to Gold Coast

  • 1951: Becomes Prime Minister

  • 1957: Full Independence


Kenya and the mau mau

Kenya and the Mau Mau

  • White settler population resists independence

  • Protests amongst Kikuyu people

  • Settlers call the movement “Mau Mau” to make it sound primitive and savage

  • 1952: Violence escalates

    between settlers and

    anti-colonial groups

  • British troops hunted down

    Kikuyu leaders and resettled

    population


Jomo kenyatta 1894 1978

Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978)

  • PhD in Anthropology (London)

  • 1952: British impose a state of

    emergency in Kenya (British East

    Africa) and arrest Kenyatta and other

    nationalist leaders.

  • 1961: Kenyatta negotiates with the

    British, agrees to write a constitution

    for independent Kenya

  • 1964: Kenyatta becomes first

    president of Kenya


Benefits of french rule

Benefits of French Rule…

  • Realization of future discrepancies between different regions (resource rich Ivory Coast vs. desert Niger)

  • Importance of French investment (a billion dollars between 1947-1956)

  • Dependence of elites on civil service employment.

  • Push to gain more self-governance under France

  • “One cannot conceive of both an independent territory

    and a France which continues

    to aid it.” de Gaulle, 1958

  • Does not stop the drive to

    independence.


Belgian congo and the cold war

Belgian Congo and the Cold War

  • Contending political and ethnic groups backed by external allies.

  • Western business groups tied to mining operations.

  • Civil War with foreign mercenaries and Cold War

    rhetoric leads to heavy loss of life.

  • 1965: Mobuto SeseSeko seizes

    power in a military coup.

  • Results in corrupt regime,

    stays in office until 1997.


Results of decolonization

Results of Decolonization

  • Underdevelopment and poverty

  • Most trained professionals return to Europe

  • New nations push economic agendas in UN

  • Anti-Imperialist appeal of Soviet Union

  • New map reflects colonial experience, not ethnic, linguistic, religious, etc. divisions

  • Conflicts over political future of newly independent nations

  • Conflicts can take ethnic/sectarian turn…


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