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Make distinctions between propaganda/fact/opinion. Make distinctions between propaganda/fact/opinion. Cause and effect. Who said “Give me liberty or give me death”?. Patrick Henry. Who said “Don’t tread on me”?.

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Make distinctions between propaganda/fact/opinion

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Make distinctions between propaganda/fact/opinion

Make distinctions between propaganda/fact/opinion

Cause and effect

Who said “Give me liberty or give me death”?

  • Patrick Henry

Who said “Don’t tread on me”?

  • Patriotic campaign slogan. Helped reinforce the negative opinion towards Great Britian.

The phrase “One if by land and two if by sea” was used . . .

  • Paul Revere “The British are coming”

The shot heard round the world referred to

  • Battle of Lexington & Concord.

E Pluribus Unum

  • Out of many are one. Unified the nation

Declaration of Independence

  • 13 colonies declare independence from Britian.

Preamble to the Constitution

  • States the reason for creating a new government.

Fifty-four forty or Fight

  • Northern line that settlers wanted to occupy.

Gettysburg Address

  • The Gettysburg Address was a speech by U.S. PresidentAbraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.[1][2][3] It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.

French and Indian war-political and economic consequences

  • Results in the French losing most of their land in North America.

Treaty of Paris of 1763

  • Treaty to end the French and Indian War.

Proclamation of 1763

  • British King prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian mountains.

Taxes on colonists-legitimacy of asking colonies to pay

  • Taxes helped pay for the war effort. Colonist rebelled against the high taxes.

Significance of events leading to Revolution

  • Britain wanted the colonist to pay high taxes to help pay for costly wars.

    • Sugar Act

    • Stamp Act

    • Declaratory Acts

Taxation without representation

  • Americans protested paying taxes without having a voice in government.

Sons of Liberty

  • The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of American patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution.

  • Led violent campaign against the Stamp Act.

Boycott of British goods

  • A non-violent protest in which the colonist would not purchase British made goods.

Quartering Act

  • Colonist must make their homes available for British soldiers.

Townshend Act

  • A tax on trade goods

Boston Massacre

  • Colonist used the massacre to turn popular opinion away from Britain.

Boston Tea Party

  • The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by colonists in Boston, a town in the British colony of Massachusetts, against the British government. On December 16, 1773, after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The incident remains an iconic event of American history, and has often been referenced in other political protests.

Intolerable Acts

  • The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies in North America. The acts sparked outrage and resistance in the Thirteen Colonies and were important developments in the growth of the American Revolution.

First Continental Congress

  • The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen BritishNorth American colonies that met on September 5, 1774, in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution. Called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts (also known as Intolerable Acts by the Colonial Americans) by the British Parliament, the Congress was attended by 56 members appointed by the legislatures of twelve of the Thirteen Colonies, the exception being the Province of Georgia, which did not send delegates. The Congress met briefly to consider options, an economic boycott of British trade, publish a list of rights and grievances, and petition King George for redress of those grievances.


  • those who supported the cause of American independence in the American Revolution


  • In North America, the term 'Loyalist' describes American colonists who rejected the American Revolution. They were typically Royal officials, Anglican clergymen, wealthy merchants with ties to London, de-mobilized Royal soldiers, or recent arrivals (especially from Scotland), together with many ordinary people. Though estimates vary, colonists with Loyalist sympathies likely accounted for as much as 30% of the colonial population of the day, compared to about 40% who were 'Patriot'. This high level of political polarization causes some historians to argue that The American Revolution was as much a civil war, as a war of independence.[1]

Decision to declare war at Second Continental Congress

  • The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved slowly towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

Declaration of Independence major ideas

  • The Declaration of Independence can be divided into four main parts.

  • The first part is an introduction and reasons for declaring independence from the government of Great Britain. 

  • The second part is a theory of good government and individual rights.

  • The third part of the document is a list of grievances against King George III.

  • The fourth and final part of the document is an unqualified assertion of sovereignty by the United States of America.

Explain significance of political, economic, geographic and social advantages and disadvantages of each side.

Compare and contrast different roles and perspectives on war e.g. men, women, white colonists, African Americans

Lexington and Concord

  • The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

  • The shot heard round the world.

Common Sense

  • Thomas Paine principal contribution was the powerful, widely-read pamphlet Common Sense (1776), advocating colonial America's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.


  • The Battles of Saratoga in September and October 1777 were decisive American victories in the American Revolutionary War, resulting in the surrender of an entire British army of over 6,000 men invading New York from Canada.

French Alliance

  • The Franco-American Alliance (also called the Treaty of Alliance) was a pact between France and the Second Continental Congress, representing the United States government, signed in Paris by French and U.S. officials in May 1778. This was a defensive alliance where the two parties agreed to aid each other into the indefinite future in the event of British attack.

Valley Forge

  • Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. This was a time of great suffering for George Washington's Army, but it was also a time of retraining and rejuvenation.


  • The Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by General Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War.

Treaty of Paris of 1783

  • The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris on May 12, 1784, formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America.

Articles of confederation-strengths and weaknesses

  • Strengths: States rights, individual rights, first form of government.

  • Weaknesses : No central government, taxes were optional, no set currency, states existed independently, Congress could not regulate any trade, led to farmers revolt.

King George III

  • Among King George's offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here ... He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." The gilded equestrian statue of George III in New York was pulled down.[48] The British captured the city in 1776, but the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada failed with the surrender of the British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga.

Lord North

  • Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence.

John Adams

  • John Adams (October 30, 1735  – July 4, 1826) was an American politician and the secondPresident of the United States (1797–1801), after being the firstVice President (1789–1797) for two terms. He is regarded as one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States.

  • He and his wife Abigail Adams founded an accomplished family line of politicians.

Samuel Adams

  • Samuel Adams (September 27 [O.S. September 16] 1722 – October 2, 1803) was a statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States.

Paul Revere

  • He was glorified after his death for his role as a messenger in the battles of Lexington and Concord, and Revere's name and his "midnight ride" are well-known in the United States as a patriotic symbol.

Benjamin Franklin

  • Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.

George Washington

  • George Washington (February 22, 1732[1][2][3] – December 14, 1799) was the leader of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and served as the firstPresident of the United States of America (1789–1797).[4]

Lord Cornwallis

  • In the United States and Britain, he is best remembered as one of the leading generals in the American War of Independence. In 1781 he surrender to a combined American-French force at the Siege of Yorktown.

Thomas Jefferson

  • Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)[1] was the thirdPresident of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States. Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806).

Patrick Henry

  • Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799)[1] was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech. Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he is remembered as one of the most influential (and radical) advocates of the American Revolution and republicanism, especially in his denunciations of corruption in government officials and his defense of historic rights.

Thomas Paine

  • Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737 – June 8, 1809) was a Britishpamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, inventor, and intellectual. He lived and worked in Britain until age 37, when he emigrated to the British American colonies, in time to participate in the American Revolution. His principal contribution was the powerful, widely-read pamphlet Common Sense (1776),

Northwest Ordinance

  • the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.

Shay’s Rebellion

  • Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Central and Western Massachusetts, (mainly Springfield) from 1786 to 1787. The rebels were led by Daniel Shays and known as Shaysites (Regulators), were mostly poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the County.

Constitutional Convention

  • Convention meet in May of 1787 to improve the Articles of Confederation

Federalist Papers

  • essays in response to critics of the U.S. Constitution


  • against strong federal government, supporters of strong states rights

Bill of Rights

  • natural rights protected by government

  • First 10 amendments

Popular sovereignty

  • people rule

Consent of the governed

  • representative government, people to have agree with government decisions

Separation of powers

  • limited government , divided powers to prevent tyranny, 3 branches of government, separate and independent power

Checks and balances

  • system to ensure not one branch would become too powerful


  • division of power- federal, state and shared

Rights through the Constitution

  • Freedom of religion: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of speech: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of press: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of assembly and petition: amendment 1

  •  Rights to due process: amendment 6

  •  Trial by jury: amendment 6

1st amendment

  • Freedom of religion: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of speech: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of press: amendment 1

  •  Freedom of assembly and petition: amendment 1

Marbury v Madison

  • supreme court can nullify a law passed by Congress

McCulloch v Maryland

  • supported implied powers, federal laws are superior to state laws

U.S. territorial disputes

  • Foreign Relations and conflicts: France and Great Britain seizing American ships, result-the Embargo Act

  • Territorial disputes: British supplying weapons to Indians

  • War of 1812: between England and U.S. British refused to respect natural trading rights

War of 1812

  • between England and U.S. British refused to respect natural trading rights

Louisiana Purchase

  • example of executive power expanded by presidential actions.

Acquisition of Florida

  • Acquisition of Florida in the Adams-Onis Treaty: Jackson went to protest Seminole harboring escaped slaves and took over Spanish forts. In treaty Spain gave U.S. Florida.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  • Acquisition of Florida in the Adams-Onis Treaty: Jackson went to protest Seminole harboring escaped slaves and took over Spanish forts. In treaty Spain gave U.S. Florida.

Impact in the north on industry, manufacturing, shipping, railroad system, immigration

  • Northern States: set up near major routes, factories near water routes impacts Industry, Manufacturing, Shipping:

Impact in the south on cotton dependence, plantation system, social classes absence of enterprises. African American resistance

  • Cotton gin: Eli Whitney-cotton cloth became less expensive, cotton demand increased

  • Plantation system: need slavery for southern agricultural period

  • Social Classes: poor through wealth, tenant farmnig

  • Relative absence of enterprises engaged in manufacturing and finance:

Nullification Crisis

  • directly related to the issue of protected tariffs, southerners argued high tariffs protected northern industry

Native American policies-Jacksonian era

  • Indian Removal Act made more land available to white settlers.

  • Impact on Native Americans of white expansion: Many lost lives, loss of land

  • Resistance and removal of the Five Tribes

  • Trail of Tears: Reason for relocation was the concept of Manifest Destiny.

Abolitionism and Underground Railroad

  • Fundamental beliefs of abolitionism: abolish slaver, African American also mistreated in North

  •  Operation of Underground Railroad: purpose was to assist with slaves escape to the North

Identify utopian experiments, (New Harmony, Indiana, Oneida, New York

  • New Harmony, Indiana: established based on father’s social issues

    Reason for formation: Second Great Awakening

  •  Oneida, New York: utopian community, developed into international corporation

Reform leaders

  • Education: Horace Mann

  • Abolition: Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth

  •  Temperance: social reform-drink less alcohol-Lymon Beecher

  •  Women’s suffrage: benefited from abolition movement because of experiences in movement. Susan B. Anthony closely related to suffrage

  • Prisons: Dorothea Dix

Manifest Destiny

  • Manifest Destiny: :our proper dominion”-our destiny to expand across entire continent. This philosophy is based on national pride.

  • Westward Expansion: settle west

  • Lure of the West: gold, land, fur, adventure, better life

  • Reality of life on the frontier: harsh

Texas Annexation, Mexican Cession, Gadsden Purchase

  • Texas Annexation:

  •  Mexican Cession: California, Nevada, Utah New Mexico

  •  Gadsden Purchase: Arizona

  •  Explorations:

  •  Events:

  •  Settlement of the American West:

Louisiana Purchase cause and effect

  • Cause and effects of the Louisiana Purchase: double size of country. Contributed to economic growth by supplying natural resources to the nation

Lewis and Clark

  •  Explorations of Lewis and Clark: exploration of land from west boundary of Louisiana to Pacific Ocean

Immigration-potato famine, railroad construction, employment opportunities

  • Immigration: Irish potato famine: prior to civil war. Most were Roman Catholic

  •   Railroad construction: Many Chinese worked on RR

  •  Employment opportunities:

  •  Ethnic and cultural conflict was intensified:

Rapid settlement of Oregon and California in 1840-50

  • Native Americans viewed migration as invasion

  •  Causes of rapid settlement of Oregon and California:

  •  California-gold, (population erupted) Oregon-fur

Trail of Tears

  • Impact of westward expansion on Native American peoples:

  • Moved for land, racial prejudice and gold. Least beneficial to Native Americans

  • Displacement and removal of Native American peoples:

  •  Indian Wars of 1850s – 1870s:

Cotton gin-increase demand for slaves

  • Invention of cotton gin: Eli Whitney 1793. Cotton gin remove seeds-improve cotton business, demand increase because increase in cotton farming

  •  Demand for cotton in northern area: pg, 415-418 high demand for textile industry, depended on south for cotton

  •   Demand for European textile factories: southerners traded cotton with Great Britain.

  •  How the opening of new lands in South and West led to the increased demand of slaves: plantation, more slave labor-increase slave trade within U.S.

Compromise of 1850

  • Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay-allowed California to enter as free. Divided Mexican Cession into 2 territories, Slavery decided by popular sov. South was upset because Cal. Would upset the balance.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin: spread knowledge of slavery all across country. Lincoln said “little lady made this a big war”

Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act: increased tension between North and Southby allowing slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty

Dred Scott decision

  • Dred Scott decision: directly resulted in strengthening the abolition movement in North. He sued for freedom and found he could not because he was not a citizen.

John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry

  • John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry: slave revolt against pro slavery

Presidential election of 1860

  • All the items above contributed to and increased sectional polarization (sectional polarization is the development of opposing opinions or viewpoints based on the section of the country where people lived).

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