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EARLY HISTORY OF FRENCH CINEMA . THE LUMIRE BROTHERSInvented combination camera, printer,

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2. EARLY HISTORY OF FRENCH CINEMA THE LUMIÈRE BROTHERS Invented combination camera, printer, & projector 1st public showing of projected movies to a paying audience; Paris, 1895 Filmed events in & around their factory; later, sent photographers around the world to take & show movies

3. EARLY HISTORY OF FRENCH CINEMA GEORGES MÉLIÈS Professional magician in Paris “Accidentally” discovered trick photography Made short magic, science fiction, & fantasy films

4. THE MATURE EARLY FILM INDUSTRY IN FRANCE PATHÉ Most powerful film company after the decline of Lumière & Méliès In 1908, distributed twice as many films in US as all US companies combined MAX LINDER 1st internationally known comedian, film actor, director Influenced American silent comedy, especially Chaplin

5. THE MATURE EARLY FILM INDUSTRY IN FRANCE GAUMONT PICTURES Founded by Leon Gaumont in 1898, Pathé's only serious rival before the 1920s Dominated French cinema from 1913-29 due to Louis Feuillade Directed a very popular detective serial called Fantômas Narratively & visually interesting; shot on location, composed shots in depth

6. THE MATURE EARLY FILM INDUSTRY IN FRANCE THE SOCIÈTÈ FILM D'ART Created in 1908 to make film adaptations of stage plays Helped to improve image of cinema in Europe & US No attempt to exploit the advantages of cinema

7. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I US films dominated during 1920s; 8 times more US films distributed & seen in France than French films French offered a clear alternative: French Impressionism

8. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I By 1920, cinema in France accepted by upper & middle classes, artistic & scholarly communities Established as legitimate subject for criticism & theory Artists in other media interested in film Interested in modernist art movements Unlike Soviets, they didn't care much for politics Unlike Germans, not so depressing & pessimistic In 20s, became more skilled technically, radical artistically

9. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I FRENCH IMPRESSIONISM (1918-28) Avant-garde, but largely within industry; artists independent, but had access to studio facilities SUBJECT MATTER Very similar to that of the Expressionists Psychological states & emotions, fantasies & dreams; subjective, flashbacks & manipulation of story time These fantasies & dreams not insane or psychotic; characters obsessed with lust, jealousy, love; more eroticism than horror

10. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I FRENCH IMPRESSIONISM (1918-28) STYLE Style quite different from that of the Germans Emphasis on cinematography & editing P-O-V shots, superimpositions, soft focus, etc. Editing used rhythmically to duplicate & reinforce the emotional states of the characters (RAPID MONTAGE)

11. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I FRENCH SURREALISM (1924-29) Largely outside of the French film industry Relied on personal financial resources &/or private patronage Films designed to offend audiences INFLUENCES ON FRENCH SURREALISM Influenced by Surrealism in painting, sculpture, & literature Also by DaDa, which was devoted to: Eliminating the "sacred quality" of the artwork Offending the audience Also by Freud: symbolism, emphasis on sex & perversions, violence, religion, etc.

12. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I FRENCH SURREALISM (1924-29) PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION (no real aesthetics) Aggressively anti-narrative Constructed their films as dreams Designed to create the maximum shock value Much of shock value comes from attempt to read them as narratives

13. FRENCH CINEMA AFTER WW I END OF IMPRESSIONIST & SURREALIST MOVEMENTS Sound brought conservatism Cost was great, industry didn't want to experiment Concentrated on safe, middle-of-the-road narrative films Surrealists couldn't get along with other people


15. EARLY HISTORY OF GERMAN CINEMA Early German cinema closely tied to legitimate theater Stage talent interested in film around 1910 More interested in modernist art movements than were Americans Stage influence made film more acceptable

16. WORLD WAR I & THE FOUNDING OF UFA WORLD WAR I (1914-18) During WWI, few films available In 1916, banned all imported films except Denmark UFA FOUNDED IN 1917 A government-subsidized film conglomerate Designed to produce & distribute films to enhance Germany's image, promote unpopular war Also to stimulate German film industry

17. WORLD WAR I & THE FOUNDING OF UFA UFA PRIVATIZATION: After war, private company backed by powerful & conservative companies FACILITIES Best facilities in Europe at this time Foreign directors worked at UFA, spread new ideas NEW IDEAS After the war, new ideas were welcomed Artists interested in modern art able to apply ideas to film at UFA


19. EXPRESSIONISM Historically, most important type of German film Films dealt with psychological states; need to show this in films Used lighting, set design, stylized acting to portray states of mind Reaction to naturalism of 19th Century art Presented states of mind through concrete means: symbolism, distortion, etc.

20. EXPRESSIONISM The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Robert Wiene, 1918); most important & influential SUBJECT MATTER Mad doctor & zombie who lives in coffin, kills on command Delusion of insane university student, patient at mental institution (doctor is director of institution) PRODUCTION DESIGN most outstanding feature Designed by 3 Expressionist painters Impossible buildings leaning in various directions; nothing is square, odd & awkward angles Lighting effects (shadows, etc.) painted on sets Acting & make-up are both grotesque

21. EXPRESSIONISM SUCCESS OF EXPRESSIONISM FINANCIAL SUCCESS Expressionism offered clear alternative to CHC Encouraged avant-garde artists for financial reasons Set designers, art directors paid more than actors, directors ARTISTIC SUCCESS Established German cinema as important internationally; joined France & US, later USSR Expressionism dominant style of German films for 10 years

22. F. W. MURNAU Early films Expressionist; most famous is Nosferatu (1922) Story of Dracula, very stylized Mise-en-scène & figure behavior very Expressionist Also CINEMATOGRAPHY FAST MOTION PHOTOGRAPHY NEGATIVE FILM FOOTAGE PIXILLATION (stop-motion photography)

23. F. W. MURNAU CAMERA MOVEMENT important in later films "Realistic" films, less stylized Most important later film, The Last Laugh (1924) Extensive use of camera movement, esp dollying "1st" use of subjective camera

24. G. W. PABST Influence on CHC due to development of editing He specialized in "street films" Realistic stories of ordinary people & their lives Starred Marlene Deitrich, Greta Garbo, etc. as prostitutes The Joyless Street (1925) most important film

25. G. W. PABST CONTINUITY EDITING Helped perfect continuity editing, norm for CHC Tried to make editing unnoticeable, emphasized narrative 2 TECHNIQUES constitute greatest contributions: MATCH ON ACTION EYELINE MATCH

26. FRITZ LANG Most important German film is Metropolis (1926) Last of Expressionist films Combined Expressionism & science fiction Stark & depressing Domination of large corporations & technology A rigid class system Famous for special effects & use of crowds as architecture Offered leadership of Nazi film industry

27. DECLINE OF GERMAN CINEMA By 1929 industry was in state of decline REASONS FOR DECLINE Hollywood hired away much of best talent Economic conditions decayed in Germany Extreme inflation, low wages, unemployment Couldn't afford to make or see films Social conditions decayed; much racial tension, "red scare“ When Nazis came to power, film industry became a propaganda machine         

28. INFLUENCE OF SILENT GERMAN CINEMA Expressionism as a film style influenced American films Esp horror films of 1930s & 40s, film noir of late 1930s & 40s Many CHC directors making these films were German FILM TECHNIQUES important to cinema internationally CAMERA MOVEMENT CONTINUITY EDITING SPECIAL EFFECTS

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