Hollywood cultural imperialism
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Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism. Fall 2013 Prof. Karl J. Skutski Department of Modern Languages & Literatures. The World Cinema Market: Admissions, worldwide. Source: Focus 2010 World Cinema Market Trends, Marche du Film Festival de Cannes.

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Hollywood cultural imperialism

Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism

Fall 2013Prof. Karl J. SkutskiDepartment of Modern Languages & Literatures


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Admissions, worldwide

Source: Focus 2010 World Cinema Market Trends, Marche du Film Festival de Cannes


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Number of screens(sample listing—not ranking)


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Number of feature films produced


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Market share

European Union

France

Germany

Italy

NationalUS

Spain

United Kingdom

Russia


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Market share

North America

India

China

NationalOther

Turkey

Japan


Hollywood cultural imperialism

  • (all time)

  • 2012

The World Cinema Market:


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Top-grossing filmsof all time

1. Avatar (2009) $2,781,505,847

2. Titanic (1997) $1,835,300,000

3. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) $1,129,219,252

4. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006) $1,065,896,541

5. Toy Story 3 (2010) $1,062,984,497

6. Alice in Wonderland (2010) $1,023,285,206

7. The Dark Knight (2008) $1,001,921,825

8. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001) $968,657,891

9. Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007) $958,404,152

10. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2007) $937,000,866

11. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009) $933,956,980

12. Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace (1999) $922,379,000

13. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) $921,600,000

14. Jurassic Park (1993) $919,700,000

15. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005) $892,194,397

16. Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009) $887,773,705

17. Spider-Man 3 (2007) $885,430,303

18. Shrek 2 (2004) $880,871,036

19. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) $866,300,000

20. Finding Nemo (2003) $865,000,000


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:

“The Yanks have colonized our subconscious.”--Wim Wenders German director


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:

“Americans have turned every cinema in the world into the equivalent of an American consulate.” --UK government report


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:

“The average Western film requires nothing from the viewer. Its narrative sets up a series of questions in order to preserve an air of suspense...“Will Lassie bring the insulin to the diabetic hunter with the broken leg before he dies?” Then it logically answers each question ...Thus the typical Western film gives us what we want by telling us what we already know.”--Stuart Hancock


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine

Production

Distribution

Megaplexes

Video sales

Video rentals

Cable and pay-per view

Merchandise


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine

Titanic

Harry Potter

Star Wars

Forest Gump

Matrix

Oceans 11

Meet the Parents

$1.8 billion

$1.0 billion

900 million

700 million

500 million

400 million

300 million


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine

$1.8 billion

$1.0 billion

900 million

700 million

500 million

400 million

300 million

80 million

20 million

7 million

4 million

1 million

Titanic

Harry Potter

Star Wars

Forest Gump

Matrix

Oceans 11

Meet the Parents

Trainspotting

Secrets & Lies

Run Lola Run

Red

No Man’s Land


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Representative listing of “foreign” films in the world market

Source: worldwideboxoffice.com


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine

AT Austria GR Greece BE Belgium IE Ireland DK Denmark IT Italy FR France LU Luxembourg FI Finland NL Netherlands DE Germany NO Norway SE

Sweden PT Portugal CH Switzerland ES Spain CEE Central Europe & Turkey UK United Kingdom


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The Hollywood Machine

US = 36,000


The hollywood aesthetic

The Hollywood Aesthetic

  • The aesthetic of pretense

  • Studio system (films as products)

  • Star-centric

  • Formula approach to narrative

    • Hero - Problem - Overcome- Happy Ending

  • Rapid montage editing

  • Special effects

  • Non-diegetic music


Hollywood cultural imperialism

  • HollyŁódź:

  • “It’s all about how we have suffered and been oppressed” No middle class

  • Struggle for survival; pursuit of tolerable dignified existence

  • Wars happen here

  • Distrust of all governments

  • Film as mirror of harsh existence

  • Not many happy endings

  • “Dark, somber, ironic, existential”

  • Life can be tough

Hollywood

“It’s all about me”/ Star-centric

Obsession with status, personal success and freedoms

Pursuit of happiness

Wars happen elsewhere

America is the greatest

Film as entertaining products

Formula, “happy-ending” plots

Aesthetic of pretense

All is well


Hollywood cultural imperialism

A Matter of National & Cultural Identity

  • Migration of international directors to Hollywood(e.g., Forman, Polanski)

  • Expatriate productions (e.g., Nair, Mehta)

  • Co-national productions

  • International financing

  • Anti-Hollywood quotas (pro-national)

  • Government subsidization

  • TV as a funding and creative outlet (e.g., BBC Films and Film 4)

  • The Hollywoodization of world cinema

  • Globalization (e.g., SONY Pictures)


Cultural imperialism globalization contemporary world cinema contemporary world cinema spring 2011

Cultural Imperialism, Globalization& Contemporary World CinemaContemporary World CinemaSpring 2011


Cultural imperialism

Cultural Imperialism

Cultural Imperialism: A critical introduction, defines the term as "the use of political and economic power to exalt and spread the values and habits of a foreign culture at the expense of a native culture.”


Cultural imperialism1

Cultural Imperialism

Cultural imperialism proposes that a society is brought into the modern world system when its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping its social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating center of the system.(Hebert Schiller, 1976).


Cultural imperialism2

Cultural Imperialism

Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on Third World Cultures by imposing on them Western views and therefore destroying their native cultures.

(Theorist: Herb Schiller)

Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University


Cultural imperialism or globalization

Cultural Imperialism or Globalization?

Irving Kristol, in The Emerging American Imperialism, presents imperialism as an unintended consequence of market expansion rather than a conscious goal…he later argues that…in fact many nations have facilitated and welcomed American cultural values along with American products and ways of life: "it happened because the world wanted it to happen."

To him, the American missionaries live in Hollywood, which is different from the Old European imperialism, which was based on bureaucratic colonial governments and resource extraction.

Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University


Cultural imperialism or globalization1

Cultural Imperialism or Globalization?

Some theories of globalization see, instead of cultural imperialism, the movement of products and ideas from across national and cultural borders in ways that produce real changes in cultures like that of the United States. In 1994, MacQuail wrote in his book Mass Communication Theory that not only was United States influencing other cultures, but other cultures were also influencing the US…In that perspective, we can talk about an interpenetration of cultures instead of the invasion of American culture in the world.

Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University


Major cinema capitals of the world

Major Cinema Capitals of the World


American cinema s spheres of influence

American Cinema’s Spheres of Influence


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Market share

European Union

France

Germany

Italy

NationalUS

Spain

United Kingdom

Russia


Hollywood cultural imperialism

The World Cinema Market:Market share

North America

India

China

NationalOther

Turkey

Japan


Parallels the spread of western values

Parallels the Spread of Western Values


Parallels the spread of western values1

Parallels the Spread of Western Values

Free market economics

Democracy

Secularism

Cultural materialism

Multiculturalism

Gender equality

Religious tolerance

Postmodernism

Artistic freedom


Parallels the spread of western values2

Parallels the Spread of Western Values

Free market economics

Democracy

Secularism

Cultural materialism

Multiculturalism

Gender equality

Religious tolerance

Postmodernism

Artistic freedom

Plus impact of technology and communications- Internet- Social media- Satellite TV


Significant national cinemas

Significant “National” Cinemas


A matter of national identity

A Matter of National Identity

“Recent national cinema studies emphasize that national identity is not a fixed and unchanging ‘essence’ but is actively constructed in films, which project national imaginaries, creating imaginary bounds holding the nation together.”

Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.


A matter of national identity1

A Matter of National Identity

“There are a number of similar themesacross the region’s [Europe’s] cinema. These include nationalism and national identity, borders and frontiers, migration…”

Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.


A matter of national identity2

A Matter of National Identity

“A rich vein running through these films…is their enlarged definition of Britishness.”

Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.


A battle of world views

A Battle of World Views

Communism

Fundamentalism


National defense strategies

National “Defense” Strategies

  • Government subsidies

  • Government-supported film schools

  • Government protection (quotas on national productions versus foreign imports)

  • Taxes on foreign films

  • Censorship boards

  • National festivals

  • Co-production with other nations

  • 1993: Uruguay GATT discussions (French led campaign to exempt films from trade agreements)

Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.


Globalization of cinema

Globalization of Cinema


Globalization of cinema1

Globalization of Cinema


Globalization of cinema2

Globalization of Cinema


Co productions

Co-Productions

  • UK:Director, Danny BoyleCelador Films (production)Film 4 (production)Fatts (post-production)

  • France:Pathe Pictures (production)

  • US:Modern Video Film (post-production)Fox, Warner (distribution)

  • India:ActorsTake One Productions (production services)FinancingMusic production


Battle of world views

Battle of World Views

First World Nations

- United States- Europe- Australia - Japan - S. Korea

  • Second World

  • - Russia

  • Eastern Europe

  • China

  • Third World

  • - India- Africa- Parts of S. America


Seven worlds theory

Seven Worlds Theory


Seven worlds theory1

Seven Worlds Theory


Seven worlds theory2

Seven Worlds Theory

India

SecularismDemocracyCultural materialismGlobalizationMulticulturalism

FundamentalismTheocracyMonoculturalism


Third cinema theory

Third Cinema Theory

  • First Cinema:Commercial, studio-based cinema based upon the Hollywood model (including Bollywood)

  • Second Cinema:European art cinema and cinema of “auteurs”

  • Third Cinema:Third-world production that is ideologically opposed to the filmmaking practices of both the First and Second Cinema- Manifesto by Argentinian film directors- Anti-American-European discourse- Post-colonial (celebration of “the Other”)- Africa, Latin America, and Asia- “Militant” (freedom for the repressed)- Political


Cultural imperialism globalization or the dynamic nature of cultures

Cultural Imperialism, Globalization…or the Dynamic Nature of Cultures?


The middle east today

The Middle East Today

Western media & technology could “tip the scale” toward democracy and against dictatorial regimes and fundamentalism in:EgyptYemenAlgeriaMoroccoIranBahrainTunisiaJordanWest Bank

Hollywood & European cinemaBlackmarket DVDs & VHSSatellite TVInternetSocial media

Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.


The middle east today1

The Middle East Today

Western media & technology could “tip the scale” toward democracy and against dictatorial regimes and fundamentalism in:EgyptYemenAlgeriaMoroccoIranBahrainTunisiaJordanWest Bank

Hollywood & European cinemaBlackmarket DVDs & VHSSatellite TVInternetSocial media

“A revolution of the social media generation.”

Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.


The middle east today2

The Middle East Today

“Despite bans on most movies and records, Iranian youth still manage to acquire pirated or black market American DVDs and CDs. They do not get their news from the state-run television or radio but from CNN, Voice of America, and Radio Israel.”--Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.


The black market for dvds

The Black Market for DVDs

Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.


Hollywood cultural imperialism

Cinema is changing the world!

Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.


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