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Good Entrepreneurship Practice at Sofia University. Roumen Nikolov Sofia University, Bulgaria. Bulgaria is an integral part of the global economic and political environment. Expected full European Union membership by 2007; Received invitation for NATO membership;

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Good Entrepreneurship Practice at Sofia University

Roumen Nikolov

Sofia University, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Bulgaria is an integral part of the global

economic and political environment

  • Expected full European Union membership by 2007;

  • Received invitation for NATO membership;

  • Bulgaria is a member of UN Security Council (took the Presidency in September 2002);

  • Strategic geographic location – a one hour time difference from Continental Europe;

  • Effective free trade agreements with most countries in the region; liberalized access to a regional market of over 550 million consumers;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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SU - Educational and Scientific Centre of the Country

  • 35,000 students

  • 76 Bachelor’s and over 200 Master’s degree programmes

  • Over 3000 teachers and researchers

  • Very important role for the development of the country

  • Challenges: economic and social changes, new models of education, new role of universities, brain drain

  • European Space of Higher Education

  • Sofia University – to become a National and Regional High-Technology and Innovation Centre

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Global

Production

Network

Local Society

International

Partnerships

Policy makers

End

service

users

Professional

Users

Corporate

R&D

SMEs

Sofia University

Centre of

Excellence

In IST

NGOs

Local economy

Business

Users

Science & Educ

Researchers

Global

R&D

Network

Centre of IST, Sofia University

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Case Study Conceptual Framework

  • Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, Organisational Pathways of Transformation. Oxford: Pergamon

  • Van der Sijde, P. (2000). Entrepreneurship at an Entrepreneurial University, Enschede: University of Twente

  • entrepreneurial university – it understands the commercial value of knowledge

    Minimum of Entrepreneurial Actions for an Entr-Uni:

  • a strengthened steering core;

  • an expanded developmental periphery;

  • a diversified funding base;

  • a stimulated academic heartland;

  • an integrated entrepreneurial culture

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Indicators of Success

  • Degree of achievement of the ‘5 irreducible minimum of actions’ for an Entrepreneurial University

  • Number of researchers, teachers, PhDs

  • Number of international projects

  • Number of international and local partners

  • Number of MSc programmes

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Background

  • Political and Economic Situation: e-skills gap – demand > supply with 12% per year; Functioning market economy; Not enough modern economic management practice; not enough entrepreneurship and tendency of risk aversion; not enough public support;

  • Demographic trends: increased number of students – regular, part-time, distance; emigration of high-skilled professionals: internal & external brain-drain, Bulgaria last among 59 countries at WEF; difficult to make up;

  • Financial Downturn;

  • Relations with Industry–‘the stronger the university-industry-government cooperation is, the more competitive is the national economy’; Overall Competitive Ranking of Bulgaria – beyond the first 60 countries; no traditions and strong opposition; entrepreneurial young generation;

  • Severe Competitive Market– smaller private universities, international universities expansion, e-learning revolution;

  • Internal considerations– need of adaptation of the university to the new conditions

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Strengthened Steering Core

  • Well organized management core of strong minded change agents is of crucial importance. Need to build dynamic and more entrepreneurial units;

  • Centre of IST – operating horizontally across entire university and beyond;

  • Bulgarian Telework Association – interface with other stakeholders;

  • Cisco Regional Academy and Microsoft IT Academy;

  • Centre of European RTD Projects;

  • Experimental Technology Park in ICT and Nanotechnology;

  • Virtech Ltd – an incubated SME;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Centre of IST organizes European Day of the Entrepreneur, 8-9 Oct., 2003: http://www-it.fmi.uni-sofia.bg/ede

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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BgTA is among the organizers of: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Virtech - an IST eWork Success Story 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Centre of ERTDP organizes: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Expanded Developmental Periphery 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria - a large network of partnering organizations

  • Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Finance, ICT Development Agency, Coordination Centre for Information, Communication and Management Technologies, Agency of SMEs, etc;

  • Applied Research and Communication Fun, Information Society Promotion Office – Bulgaria, Bulgarian IT Association – BAIT, Industry Association of Bulgarian Software Development Companies – BASSCOM, Bulgarian Telework Association, Public Computer and Communication Center Association, etc.

  • Large network of universities under the Virtual Department of Computing ‘John Atanasoff’ Project which comprises 15 Bulgarian universities and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences;

  • Cisco, Microsoft, Oracle, etc.

  • Large network of SMEs coordinated by Bulgarian Telework Association;

  • Large international network

  • Student enterprises initiative.

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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E-Democracy & e-Government Project: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Centre of IST - E-Learning Capacity: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Another E-Learning Course: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Sofia University – a Cisco Regional Academy 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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ARCADE - 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, BulgariaArchitecture for Reusable Courseware Authoring and Delivery

System

Management

User

Management

Chat

DiscussionBoard

ARCADE

Core

News

Assess-ments

Mails

Assign-ments

Curriculum

Management

AuthoringTool

VirtualDisk

Course

Management

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Virtech cooperates with: 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Diversified Funding Base 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

  • International Projects - EC Fifth Framework Programme, World Bank, INCO COPERNICUS, PHARE, TEMPUS, Erasmus, Leonardo;

  • National Projects – Agency for ICT Development, Industry;

  • Training for industry, public administration and individuals;

  • Industrial research and development funded by large companies, such as Atomic Power Plant Kozlodui, Biovet-Peshtera, Silway-Sofia, etc;

  • Patents and intellectual property rights (IPR) – still not well developed; Some IPR intensive RTD results – ARCADE, Mall2000 B2B Portal, etc.

  • Venture capital and business angels – under-developed;

  • Sponsorship - general economic and social environment in Bulgaria does not support this channel to a desired extent;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Stimulated Academic Heartland 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

  • Academic heartland is where traditional academic values are most firmly rooted.

  • When an enterprising university evolves a stronger steering core, and develops an outreach structure, and diversifies its income streams, its heartland is still found in the traditional academic departments formed around disciplines – new and old – and some interdisciplinary fields of study. Whether they accept or oppose a significant transformation is critical.

  • As each university is a bottom-heavy organization it is of crucial importance to ensure support for the promoted changes from the members of the basic units.

  • Excellent research and teaching staff - prerequisite for strengthening the academic heartland;

  • Entrepreneurial shift depends on the age and size of the university: the smaller – the better;

  • Sofia University is quite conservative and heavy to transform;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Integrated Entrepreneurial Culture 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria

  • Lack of entrepreneurial culture in Bulgarian individuals and organisations is among the most important obstacles to promoting entrepreneurship;

  • This mentality was cultivated during a long period of communist regime when any type of entrepreneurial activity was considered ‘dangerous’ to the government;

  • Many of the academy people still keep this attitude which makes the academic environment not supportive, sometimes even hostile to university-industry cooperation;

  • Many industry organisations neglect cooperation with universities since they are considered to mere producers of academic results that are largely inappropriate to real applications in industry;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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‘Ten Commandments’ of an Entrepreneurial University Leader

  • Do not wait to be innovative until the steering core is strengthened. You’d better start an ‘underground entrepreneurial revolution’ rather than wait;

  • Do not expect the development periphery to be expanded. Expand it yourself!

  • Do not expect the funding base to be diversified. Diversify it yourself!

  • Do not stimulate the whole academic heartland. Stimulate only those who are willing to be involved and contribute;

  • Do not force building an integrated entrepreneurial culture in the whole organization. Gradually expand this culture by showing positive results and providing customized training;

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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‘Ten Commandments’ of an Entrepreneurial University Leader (2)

  • Do not put barriers between research, development, education and training but rather build multiple stable bridges between them;

  • Do not restrict international cooperation. Build a speedy highways for teachers and students mobility and transfer of scientific ideas, technology, know-how and business opportunities. Instead of stimulating the ‘brain-drain’ these measures can actually reduce it;

  • Do not consider projects as ‘frames’ but rather as ‘seeds’ to grow new projects, partnerships and cooperation lines and raise additional funds;

  • Build a stable infrastructure and a critical mass of people covering the whole life cycle of project development and exploitation of results;

  • Cooperate and build networks at any level – team, department, university, region, country, Europe, the whole world. Cooperation and networking is the winning strategy for any business today. This holds true for universities as well.

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Education and Training as a Meta-Industry Leader

  • IDC predicts that the global corporate e-learning market would exceed $23.1 billion by 2004 (in 1999 it was $1.8 billion);

  • North America will account for 65.2% of the market by 2004 and Western Europe will be the fastest-growing market;

  • In 2000 the non-IT segment accounted for 24% of the market but it is expected to capture 53.8% by 2005;

  • Gardner predicts that e-Learning will be the most-used corporate application on the web by 2005;

  • in 2003 over 50% of all higher education institutions in the world will be offering e-Learning programmes to students;

  • e-Learning Industry segments: Content/Publishing; Tools/Enablers; Learning Service Providers (LSPs); Knowledge Hubs/Portals; Educational e-Tailers;

  • growing number of partnerships between e-Learning vendors and academic institutions to create ’virtual universities‘ online

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Development of the Bulgarian e-Learning Industry - Strategic Direction of the New Economy

  • This industry could be considered a ‘meta-industry’ since it could positively influence all other industry sectors;

  • It could become Bulgaria’s most important asset on its way to the Knowledge Economy;

  • Foreign direct investments (FDI) have radically changed the food and beverages sector, cement industry, non-ferrous metallurgy, wholesale trade and banking in Bulgaria;

  • FDI couldradically change the ’knowledge sector‘ of the industry which should be built around the real knowledge producers – universities and research institutions;

  • We might expect a radical change in building sustainable ‘university-industry-government’ partnerships;

  • A chance for Bulgaria to leap forward into the ‘knowledge economy’, and Sofia University is prepared to take a leading role.

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Some Estimated Achievements Direction of the New Economy

  • a strengthened steering core – 50%;

  • an expanded developmental periphery – 70%;

  • a diversified funding base – 40%;

  • a stimulated academic heartland – 30%;

  • an integrated entrepreneurial culture – 15%.

  • CIST has helped the Department of IT stabilize its number of researchers and lecturers at 14

  • attracted a stable core of more than 30 interdisciplinary researchers from other universities;

  • 2001 - 5 PhD students enrolled, in 2002- 10 PhD students;

  • 4FP – 4 projects; 5FP – 15 projects; 6FP – 2 projects; + several other, e.g. from WB

  • international partners - 15 in 1997, nearly 90 in 2003

  • local partners - 5 in 1997, 150 in 2003

  • 2 MSc programmes in 1997, 6 – in 2002

  • New Faculty of Applied Sciences under Establishment - 4 BSc & 13 MSc Programmes envisaged.

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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Thank you for your attention! Direction of the New Economy

European Day of the Entrepreneur 8-9 October, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria


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