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Exposure Java-AB 2007. Chapter 37 Slides. Sets & Maps. PowerPoint Presentation created by: Mr. John L. M. Schram. From Materials Created by Mr. Leon Schram. AP Exam Alert.

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Chapter 37 slides

Exposure Java-AB 2007

Chapter 37 Slides

Sets & Maps

PowerPoint Presentation

created by:

Mr. John L. M. Schram

From Materials Created

by Mr. Leon Schram


Ap exam alert

AP Exam Alert

The HashSet, TreeSet, HashMap and TreeMap are four classes that are part of the Java AB subset, which may be tested on the AP Computer Science Examination.


Collections

Collections

A collection is a group of objects.


Unordered collections

Unordered Collections

An unordered collection stores elements without order.


Chapter 37 slides

Bags

A bag is an unordered collection that can have duplicate elements.


Chapter 37 slides

Sets

A set is an unordered collection without any duplicate elements.


Java collection hierarchy

Java Collection Hierarchy

Collection

Interface

List

Interface

Set

Interface

ArrayList

class

LinkedList

class

HashSet

class

TreeSet

class


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3701.java

// This program reviews the two <Set> implementations, which are the

// <TreeSet> and <HashSet> classes, with the <add> method.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3701

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3701.JAVA\n");

int[ ] numbers = {10,90,20,80,30,70,40,60,50};

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

for (int number: numbers)

{

hSet.add(new Integer(number));

tSet.add(new Integer(number));

}

System.out.println(hSet);

System.out.println(tSet);

System.out.println();

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3702.java

// This program demonstrates that <Set> objects do not contain

// duplicate elements like <List> objects. It also demonstrates that

// <TreeSet> objects store elements in ascending order.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3702

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3702.JAVA\n");

int[] numbers = {23,43,49,61,23,50,49,18,75,18};

List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

for (int number: numbers)

{

list.add(new Integer(number));

hSet.add(new Integer(number));

tSet.add(new Integer(number));

}

System.out.println(list);

System.out.println(hSet);

System.out.println(tSet);

System.out.println();

}

}


Constructing a set object

Constructing a Set Object

HashSet<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

TreeSet<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

or you can use the preferred declaration below

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();


Set method add

Set Method add

hSet.add(new Integer(1000));

tSet.add(new Integer(2000));

Method add stores a new value in a Set object, provided the element is not already stored in the Set object.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3703.java

// This program demonstrates how to use an <Iterator> object, with the

// <next> method, to access every element in a <Set> object.

// This is followed by using the <for..each> loop to access <Set> elements.

// It also demonstrates the <size> method.import java.util.*;

public class Java3703

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3703.JAVA\n");

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

for (int k = 10; k < 100; k+= 10)

{

hSet.add(new Integer(k));

tSet.add(new Integer(k));

}

Iterator<Integer> hAccess = hSet.iterator();

for (int k = 0; k < hSet.size(); k++)

System.out.print(hAccess.next() + " ");

System.out.println("\n\n");

for (Integer element: tSet)

System.out.print(element + " ");

System.out.println("\n\n");

}

}


Constructing an iterator object

Constructing an Iterator Object

Iterator<Integer> hAccess = hSet.iterator();

The iterator method of a Collection class object (ArrayList, LinkedList, HashSet and TreeSet) instantiates an object of the Iterator class, in this case hAccess.


Iterator method next

Iterator Method next

System.out.print(hAccess.next()+" ");

Method next moves the iterator to the next element, and then returns it.


Set method size

Set Method size

for (int k = 0; k < hSet.size(); k++)

Method size returns the number ofelements in the Set object.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3704.java

// This program demonstrates how to create a conditional loop with the

// <hasNext> method of the <Iterator> class.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3704

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3704.JAVA\n");

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

for (int k = 10; k < 100; k+= 10)

{

hSet.add(new Integer(k));

tSet.add(new Integer(k));

}

Iterator<Integer> hAccess = hSet.iterator();

while (hAccess.hasNext())

System.out.print(hAccess.next() + " ");

System.out.println("\n\n");

Iterator<Integer> tAccess = tSet.iterator();

while (tAccess.hasNext())

System.out.print(tAccess.next() + " ");

System.out.println("\n\n");

}

}


Iterator method hasnext

Iterator Method hasNext

while (iter.hasNext())

Method hasNext returns true if elements remain in the Collection object and returns false otherwise.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3705.java This program demonstrates the <remove> method of the <Iterator> class.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3705

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3705.JAVA\n");

Set hSet = new HashSet();

Set tSet = new TreeSet();

for (int k = 1; k <= 10; k++)

{

hSet.add(new Integer(k));

tSet.add(new Integer(k));

}

System.out.println("Set elements before using the <remove> method.");

System.out.println(hSet);

System.out.println(tSet);

Iterator hAccess = hSet.iterator();

Iterator tAccess = tSet.iterator();

for (int k = 1; k <= 10; k++)

{

hAccess.next();

tAccess.next();

if (k % 2 == 0)

{

hAccess.remove();

tAccess.remove();

}

}

System.out.println("\nSet elements after using the <remove> method.");

System.out.println(hSet);

System.out.println(tSet);

System.out.println();

}

}


2 remove methods

2 remove Methods

iter.remove();

Iterator method remove removes the current item referenced by the iterator.

hSet.remove(new Integer(k));

Set method remove removes theelement specified in the parameter, if it exists in the Set object.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3706.java

// This program demonstrates the <remove> method of the <Set> interface,

// which is not the same as the <Iterator> <remove> method>.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3706

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3706.JAVA\n");

int[] numbers = {10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20};

Set<Integer> hSet = new HashSet<Integer>();

for (int number: numbers)

hSet.add(new Integer(number));

System.out.println("Set elements before using the <remove> method.");

for (Integer number: hSet)

System.out.print(number + " ");

for (int k = 10; k <= 20; k++)

{

if (k % 2 == 0)

hSet.remove(new Integer(k));

}

System.out.println("\n\nSet elements after using the <remove> method.");for (Integer number: hSet)

System.out.print(number + " ");

System.out.println();

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3707.java

// This program demonstrates the <contains> method of the <Set> interface,

import java.util.*;

public class Java3707

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3707.JAVA\n");

Set<Integer> tSet = new TreeSet<Integer>();

Random rndInt = new Random(12345);

for (int k = 1; k <= 40; k++)

{

tSet.add(new Integer(rndInt.nextInt(90) + 10));

}

System.out.println("tSet Members");

for (int k = 10; k <= 99; k++)

if (tSet.contains(new Integer(k)))

System.out.print(k + " ");

System.out.println();

}

}


Set method contains

Set Method contains

if (tSet.contains(new Integer(k)))

Method contains returns true if the parameter value exists in the Set object and false otherwise.


Chapter 37 slides

Set Operations

&

Venn Diagrams

Review


Chapter 37 slides

Venn Diagram #1

The Boolean Algebra logical and ( * ) can be demonstrated with Venn Diagrams, using intersection.

A intersect B also A and B also A * B also AB


Chapter 37 slides

A B

Venn Diagram #2

The Boolean Algebra logical or ( + ) can be demonstrated with Venn Diagrams, using union.

A union B also A or B also A + B


Why you did not learn set theory in your math classes

Why you did not learn Set Theory in your Math classes

1960s

After Sputnik, the United States

adopted New Math in the classroom.

After test scores went down the focus switched back to the "3 Rs" (Reading, Riting & Rithmetic).

Unfortunately, they stopped New Math completely just as Technology courses were being introduced.

1990s


Chapter 37 slides

8 1 2

0 5 4 9


Chapter 37 slides

8 1 2

0 5 4 9


Set difference

10 40 70

20 50 80

30 60 90

Set Difference

A lesser-known set operation is set difference.

In this operation all the elements of one set are returned that are not found in the second set.

It is important to realize that difference can create two different results. The order is significant.

Consider the following example.

Set1 contains[10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]

Set2 contains[40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90]

The difference of Set1 and Set2 or Set1 - Set2 = [10, 20, 30]

The difference of Set2 and Set1 or Set2 - Set1 = [70, 80, 90]


Chapter 37 slides

A B

Venn Diagram #3

Boolean Algebra logical subtraction ( - ) can be demonstrated with Venn Diagrams, using difference.

A - B also A * ~B also A and not B also A not B


Chapter 37 slides

8 1 2

0 5 4 9


Chapter 37 slides

HashMaps

&

TreeMaps


Math example

Math Example

In the example below call the x-value the keyand the y-value the valueor the target. For the y = x + 2 function we can say that 1 maps to 3 & 2 maps to 4. For the y = x2 - 2 function we can say that 1 maps to -2 & 2 maps to 1.


Geography example

Geography Example

Once again there is an association between the key (country) and its value or target (capital). In this example Belgium maps to Brussels, France maps to Paris, Germany maps to Berlin, etc.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3711.java

// This program introduces the <HashMap> and <TreeMap> classes with the <put> method.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3711

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3711.JAVA\n");

Map hMap = new HashMap();

Map tMap = new TreeMap();

hMap.put("D","Dog");

hMap.put("B","Bear");

hMap.put("A","Aardvark");

hMap.put("C","Cat");

tMap.put("D","Dog");

tMap.put("B","Bear");

tMap.put("A","Aardvark");

tMap.put("C","Cat");

System.out.println(hMap);

System.out.println(tMap);

System.out.println();

}

}


Constructing a map object

Constructing a Map Object

HashMap hMap = new HashMap();

TreeMap tMap = new TreeMap();

or you can use the preferred declaration below:

Map hMap = new HashMap();

Map tMap = new TreeMap();


Map method put

Map Method put

hMap.put("C","Cat");

tMap.put("C","Cat");

Method put stores the first parameter - "C" - as the key and its second parameter - "Cat" - as the value or target.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3712.java

// This program investigates how data is sorted.

// It appears that the key (1, 2, 3, 4) is used.

// This program also demonstrates using generics with <Map> classes.

// Notice how you need to use the double type, like <String,String>.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3712

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3712.JAVA\n");

Map<String,String> hMap = new HashMap<String,String>();

Map<String,String> tMap = new TreeMap<String,String>();

hMap.put("1","Dog");

hMap.put("2","Bear");

hMap.put("3","Aardvark");

hMap.put("4","Cat");

tMap.put("1","Dog");

tMap.put("2","Bear");

tMap.put("3","Aardvark");

tMap.put("4","Cat");

System.out.println(hMap);

System.out.println(tMap);

System.out.println();

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3713.java

// This program demonstrates that keys in a <HashMap> object are not sorted.

// Keys in a <TreeMap> object are sorted in ascending order.

// The keys in each object map to the same target to focus on the key order.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3713

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3713.JAVA\n");

Map<Integer,String> hMap = new HashMap<Integer,String>();

Map<Integer,String> tMap = new TreeMap<Integer,String>();

Random rnd = new Random(12345);

System.out.println("Random Key Sequence");

for (int k = 1; k <= 20; k++)

{

Integer intObj = new Integer(rnd.nextInt(90) + 10);

System.out.print(intObj + " ");

hMap.put(intObj,"HashMap");

tMap.put(intObj,"TreeMap" );

}

System.out.println("\n\n");

System.out.println(hMap);

System.out.println("\n\n");

System.out.println(tMap);

System.out.println();

}

}

Output on

next slide


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3714.java

// This program demonstrates that the <put> method can be used to replace existing

// data in a map with the same key.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3714

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3714.JAVA\n");

Map<String,String> hMap = new HashMap<String,String>();

Map<String,String> tMap = new TreeMap<String,String>();

hMap.put("D","Dog");

hMap.put("B","Bear");

hMap.put("A","Aardvark");

hMap.put("C","Cat");

tMap.put("D","Dog");

tMap.put("B","Bear");

tMap.put("A","Aardvark");

tMap.put("C","Cat");

System.out.println(hMap);

System.out.println(tMap);

System.out.println();

hMap.put("A","Anaconda");

tMap.put("A","Anaconda");

System.out.println(hMap);

System.out.println(tMap);

System.out.println();

}

}

NOTE: One key

CANNOT be mapped

to 2 different values.


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3715.java

// This program demonstrates that the <put> method is a return method, which

// returns the current value, prior to replacing a new value.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3715

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3715.JAVA\n");

Map<String,String> map = new TreeMap<String,String>();

map.put("A","Aardvark");

map.put("B","Bear");

map.put("C","Cat");

map.put("D","Dog");

System.out.println(map.put("A","Andy"));

System.out.println(map.put("B","Bonny"));

System.out.println(map.put("C","Cliff"));

System.out.println(map.put("D","Darlene"));

System.out.println();

System.out.println(map);

}

}


Map method put the rest of the story

Map Method putThe Rest of the Story

System.out.println(map.put("A","Andy"));

put is a return method, which returns the currently mapped value before replacing the mapping with the new value in its parameter .


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3716.java

// This program demonstrates the <get> method, which returns

// the object that is mapped to a specified key.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3716

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3716.JAVA\n");

Map<Integer,String> map = new TreeMap<Integer,String>();

map.put(new Integer(15),"Dog");

map.put(new Integer(18),"Bear");

map.put(new Integer(21),"Aardvark");

map.put(new Integer(35),"Cat");

System.out.println(map);

System.out.println();

for (int k = 1; k <= 50; k ++)

{

Integer key = new Integer(k);

String target = map.get(key);

if (target != null)

System.out.println(target);

}

System.out.println();

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// Java3717.java

// This program demonstrates the <containsKey> method.

// This makes the previous program more practical.

import java.util.*;

public class Java3717

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3717.JAVA\n");

Map<Integer,String> map = new TreeMap<Integer,String>();

map.put(new Integer(15),"Dog");

map.put(new Integer(18),"Bear");

map.put(new Integer(21),"Aardvark");

map.put(new Integer(35),"Cat");

System.out.println(map);

System.out.println();

for (int k = 1; k <= 50; k ++)

{

Integer key = new Integer(k);

if (map.containsKey(key))

System.out.println(map.get(key));

}

System.out.println();

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// This program demonstrates how to use a map object as a dictionary.

// It also demonstrates the use of the <keySet> method, which returns a

// <Set> object of available keys in a <Map> object.

public class Java3718

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJAVA3718.JAVA\n");

String[] english = {"one","two","three","house","room","city","beach","bicycle"};

String[] dutch = {"een","twee","drie","huis","kamer","stad","strand","fiets"};

Translator englishDutch = new Translator(english,dutch);

System.out.println(englishDutch);

}

}

class Translator

{

private Map<String,String> map;

public Translator(String[] keys, String[] values)

{

map = new HashMap<String,String>();

for (int k = 0; k < keys.length; k++)

if (!map.containsKey(k)) map.put(keys[k],values[k]);

}

public String toString()

{

Set<String> keys = new HashSet<String>();

keys = map.keySet(); String temp = "";

for (String key: keys)temp += key + " = " + map.get(key) + "\n";

return temp;

}

}


Chapter 37 slides

// This program presents a more practical dictionary. It is now possible - with a limited vocabulary -

// to translate English words interactively into Dutch words. The program concludes with the entry of "end".

public class Java3719

{

public static void main (String args[])

{

System.out.println("\nJava3719.java\n");

String[] english = {"one","two","three","house","room","city","beach","bicycle"};

String[] dutch = {"een","twee","drie","huis","kamer","stad","strand","fiets"};

Translator dictionary = new Translator(english,dutch);

Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);

String englishWord = "begin";

while (!englishWord.equals("end"))

{

System.out.print("Enter an English word ===>> ");

englishWord = input.nextLine();

System.out.println();

if (englishWord.equals("end"))

System.out.println("Tot ziens");

else

{

String dutchWord = dictionary.getDutch(englishWord);

System.out.println(englishWord + " in English equals " + dutchWord + " in Dutch");

}

System.out.println();

}

}

}

class Translator

{

private Map<String,String> map;

public Translator(String[] keys, String[] values)

{

map = new HashMap<String,String>();

for (int k = 0; k < keys.length; k++)

if (!map.containsKey(k)) map.put(keys[k],values[k]);

}

public String getDutch(String word)

{

if (map.containsKey(word)) return map.get(word);

else return "not in dictionary";

}

}

Output on

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