First Aid Of Bleeding By Dr. Hanan Said Ali . Learning Objectives: *- Define the bleeding. *-Identify types of bleeding . *-List types of external bleeding. *-Identify sign of haemorrhage. *-Discus how to control bleeding.
Learning Objectives:*-Define the bleeding.*-Identify types of bleeding .*-List types of external bleeding.*-Identify sign of haemorrhage.*-Discus how to control bleeding.
Learning Objectives:*-Identify sign of internal bleeding.*-Discus first aid of nose bleeding.*-State first aid of mouth bleeding.*-Recognize first aid of ear bleeding.*-Discus first aid ofBleeding Varicose Vein.
Definition Of BleedingIt is leakage of blood out side the blood vessels.Types of bleeding1- Internal Bleeding2-external bleedingTypes Of External Bleeding.A –Arterial BleedingIt is from an ARTERY, a major blood vessel which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart throughout the body.
It is characterized by spurts with each beat of the heart, is bright red in colour (although blood darkens when it meets the air) and is usually severe and hard to control. ARTERIAL bleeding requires immediate attention.B-Venous BleedingIt from a VEIN, which carries blood back to the heart to be oxygenatedIt is characterized by a steady flow and the blood is dark. Venus bleeding is easier to control than Arterial bleeding.
C- Capillary Bleeding It is from capillary, it is the smallest of our body's blood vesselsIt is usually slow, oozing in nature and this type of bleeding usually has a higher risk of infection than other types of bleeding.D- MelaenaTiny stool (Black faeces due to presence of blood ,its causes are chronic duodenal or gastric ulcer ,oesophageal avarices, carcinoma of stomach
E-Hematemesis :Vomiting of bloodF-Epistaxis:bleeding from nose.G-Hemoptysis: Coughing of blood, common causes of pulmonary tuberculosis lung abscess neoplasm.H-Rectal Bleedin:Passage of blood in stool this may occur in case of cancer colonI- Vaginal bleeding : Passage blood from vagina as in cancer cervix.
What is The Haemorrhage?*It refers to a large amount of bleeding in a short time.Signs and Symptoms of Haemorrhage.-Pale face and lips. -Cold clammy skin.-Faint and dizzy.-Rapid and weak pulse(thready).-Respiration are rapid and shallow.-Air hunger.-Subnormal temperature.-Restless
Before providing care, put on protective gloves or use a barrier between you and the victim, to reduce the chance of disease transmission while assisting the injured person. Cleanse your hands thoroughly with soap and water when finished.
BASIC FIRST AID TREATMENT
How to control bleeding ?1-Apply DIRECT PRESSUREon the wound. use a dressing, if available. if a dressing is not available, use a rag, towel, piece of clothing or your hand alone.
IMPORTANT:ONCE PRESSURE IS APPLIED, KEEP IT IN PLACE. IF DRESSINGS BECOME SOAKED WITH BLOOD, APPLY NEW DRESSINGS OVER THE OLD DRESSINGS. THE LESS A BLEEDING WOUND IS DISTURBED, THE EASIER IT WILL BE TO STOP THE BLEEDING!
If bleeding continues, and you do not suspect a fracture, ELEVATE the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply directpressure
3-If the bleeding still cannot be controlled, the next step is to applyPRESSURE AT A PRESSURE POINT. For wounds of the arms or hands, pressure points are located on the inside of the wrist ( radial artery-where a pulse is checked) or on the inside of the upper arm (brachial artery). For wounds of the legs, the pressure point is at the crease in the groin (femoral artery). Steps 1 and 2 should be continued with use of the pressure points
4-The final step to control bleeding is to applya PRESSURE BANDAGE over the wound. A bandage, such as roll gauze, is used to hold a dressing in place.* After the bandage is in place, it is important to check the pulse to make sure circulation is not interrupted.
A SLOW PULSE RATE, OR BLUISH FINGERTIPS OR TOES,SIGNAL A BANDAGE MAY BE IMPEDING CIRCULATION.
Signs and symptoms of INTERNAL BLEEDING are: *Bruised, swollen, tender or rigid abdomen *Bruises on chest or signs of fractured ribs *Abnormal pulse and difficulty breathing *Cool, moist skin**First Aid Of Internal Bleeding1- Lay the victim down with his head low and to one side to ensure a good blood supply to his brain& prevent aspiration if vomiting occur.
2-Lossen any constricting clothing around his neck, chest and waist.3-Reassure him and explain the necessity for him to relax.4-Check breathing and pulse rate and level of responsiveness at 10-minutes intervals.5-Examine the victim for other injuries and treat as necessary.
6-If he becomes unconscious, keep his air way open and check breathing and complete the ABC.7-Keep the victim covered and place a blanket underneath him.8-Keep a record of any specimen passed or vomited by the victim.
Do not give the victim any thing by mouth
NosebleedOccur when tiny blood vessels inside the nostrils are ruptured ,either by a blow to the nose, or a result of sneezing and high blood pressure.First Aid of Nose bleed1- Reassure the victim.2- Ask the victim to Sit down and advice her to tilt her head forwards. 3- Ask the victim to breath from her mouth.4- Pinch the soft part of the nose.5-Tell the victim to keep pinching her nose ,and advice her not to speak , swallow ,cough.
6- If bleeding continues, hold the position for an additional 10 minutes.7- Apply ice bag to nose and cheeks to constrict the blood vessels in nose and stop the bleeding.8-If bleeding does not stop in short time, victim should be transferred to the hospital.
Bleeding from the earIt is usually due to burst(perforated)eardrumCauses1-Foreign object pushed in the ear.2-A blow to side of the head.Symptoms*Sharp pain * Earache * Deafness* Dizziness * Watery blood * If skull fracture occur fluid is leaking from around the brain .
First Aid Of Ear bleeding1-Help the victim into a Half –sitting position, with his head tilted to the injured side to allow to drain 2- Put on gloves if available .Hold a sterile dressing or a clean pad lightly in place on the ear
Bleeding from the mouthCuts to the tongue, lips, or lining of the mouth range from trivial injuries to more serious wounds.Causes The cause is usually the victim's own teeth or dental extraction.First Aid Of Bleeding from the mouth * Ask the victim to sit down, with her head forwards and tilted slightly to the injured side to allow blood to drain from the mouth.
*Place gauze pad over the wound .* Ask the victim to squeeze the pad between finger and thumb and press on the wound for 10 minutes. * If bleeding persists, replace the pad .* Tell victim to let the blood dribble out; if swallowed, it may induce vomiting.
Avoid drinking anything hot for 12 hours
Bleeding Varicose VeinVeins contain one-way valves that keep blood flowing towards the heart .If these valves fail, blood collects behind them and make the veins swell.First Aid Of Bleeding Varicose Vein1- Help the victim to lie down on her back, then raise and support the injured leg as high as possible.
2- Apply firm, direct pressure on the areausing sterile dressing or clean pad, until the blood loss is under control.3- Remove garments such as elastic –topped stocking because these may cause bleeding to continue.