Chapter 12: The Empire and The People. Monica Paz CHS 245 OL- 14004. Ideology of Expansion.
CHS 245 OL- 14004
The panic of 1893 caused a major economic depression in 1893. people were desperate to sell their products and get back on their feet. The idea of expansion began to develop and spread across the United States. They thought that perhaps “overseas markets for American goods might relieve the problem of under consumption at home and prevent the economic crisis that in the 1890s brought class war”
“In strict confidence….I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one.”- Theodore
“Americans must now begin to look forward”
The American armed forces had already made 108 intervention between 1798-1945 with other countries . Which include Argentina, Nicaragua, Japan and China.
Captain A. T . Mahan of the U.S navy, helped with the progression of expanding their trade to other countries. He greatly influenced President Theodore Roosevelt and other powerful leaders.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts was another huge supporter of expanding American markets to other countries. “It is a movement which makes for civilization and the advancement of the race. As one of the great nations of the world the United States must not fall out of line of march.”
Although expansion did seem to have more gains than loses for the United States, Howard Zinn and a editorial from the Washington Post both wondered that perhaps this wasn’t about just about economic reasons but perhaps a “lust for aggression”. Was it just a way to become more powerful than other countries?
“We are face to face with a strange destiny. The taste of Empire is in the mouth of the people even as the taste of blood in the jungle…”
February 1898-Battleship Maine mysteriously exploded, 268 men were lost. President McKinley and rich business owners were desperate in getting Spain out of Cuba. The only way possible was war. They quickly used this event to trigger It by blaming the explosion on Spain.
-Peace treaty was signed with Spain.
-Spain turned over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines , in return the U.S Paid $20 million dollars.
-The United States did not know what to do with the Philippines.
-President McKinley stated “The truth is I didn't want the Philippines….
And one night late it came to me this way -- I don't know how it was, but it came:
1) That we could not give them back to Spain -- that would be cowardly and dishonorable.
2) That we could not turn them over to France or Germany, our commercial rivals in the Orient -- that would be bad business and discreditable.
3) That we could not leave them to themselves -- they were unfit for self-government -- and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and
4) That there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow men for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed and went to sleep and slept soundly.”
Philippine American war ended in 1902, it took three years for the United States
to crush the rebels.
-four times as many troops were used than in Cuba
- Filipino death right was enormous.
Harvard philosopher, wrote a letter to the Boston Transcript saying that the “Philippine operation ‘reeked of the infernal adroitness of the great department store, which has reached perfect expertness in the art of killing silently, and with no public squalling or commotion, the neighboring small concerns’”
In 1901,the Manila correspondent of Philadelphia Ledger reported what was really going on in the Philippines, innocent people were being killed by the hundreds.
However the United States military showed no remorse for their actions.
Instead they would come up with excuses for their actions. That they only shot in self defense.