Chapter 4 civil war and reconstruction
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CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. I. Growth of Slavery. Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s to early 1800s North – Factories South – Cotton gin ( eli whitney ). What did not Northerners think about abolishing slavery?. II. The cause of tensions. A. Who had gov’t power 1. Sectionalism

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CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

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CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION


I. Growth of Slavery

  • Industrial Revolution

    • Mid 1700s to early 1800s

    • North – Factories

    • South – Cotton gin (eliwhitney)

What did not Northerners think about abolishing slavery?


II. The cause of tensions

A. Who had gov’t power

1. Sectionalism

B. What was economic basis

1. Farming or factories?


III. COMPROMISE OF 1850

  • 15 and 15: California?

  • Gold Rush ‘49

  • Extend compromise line?


Admits California as a free state

Upholds popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah

Settles Texas/New Mexico border dispute

Bans slave trade in Washington, D.C.

Includes Fugitive Slave Act

COMPROMISE OF 1850

Compromise of 1850


IV. FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT

Northerners now feel a part of the slave system.

Doesn’t sit well with many


V. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT

  • Two territories

  • Supposed to be free

  • Popular Sovereignty

  • Bloody Kansas

  • Violence in Senate

    a. Sumner

    b. Brooks


VI. DRED SCOTT CASE

  • Slave in free territory (Wisc)

  • Supreme Court

  • Slaves are property; not people

  • Congressional power limited


VII. South Secedes

Reasons

1. Lincoln elected 1860

  • Won no Southern states

  • South: no voice in national gov’t


2. Economics of cotton

a. worldwide demand

b. impact of “take care of your own first”?


VII. Civil War Begins

  • South Carolina

    1. first state to secede

    2. Fort Sumter: Charleston

    3. Union holds fort

    4. Confederates bombard (4/12-4/14, 1861)


CHARLESTON HARBOR, S. C.


FORT SUMTER, SOUTH CAROLINA


Dividing the Nation


Long-Term Causes

Immediate Cause

Event

South Seceeds and the Civil War Begins


SECTION 1 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

  • Why was the fight over farming or factories as the basis of the economy truly stupid?

  • It can be said that there is nothing more American than solving the slavery issue by popular sovereignty. Explain.

  • What was the ultimate reason the southern states seceeded (separated) from the North?


SECTIONS 2 & 3

The Civil War


Lincoln’s view on slavery

“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”

—Abraham Lincoln, August 22, 1862,

quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln

From this, what is Lincoln’s obvious goal for the Civil War?


I. Battle of ANTIETAM (Summer, 1862)

A. South invades North

  • Want British help

  • Emancipation Proclamation


  • II. Emancipation Proclamation

    A. Issued Sept. 1862: Rejoin w/ no penalty

    B. Effective Jan. 1, ‘63: CSA slaves free

    C. Politically driven

    D. Effects (2):


    III. General U.S. Grant

    • Alcoholic before war

    • If I die, I die attitude

    • General of the west

    • Shiloh: did what was necessary

      1. “All I do is win, win, win”

      E. Promoted 2 top general


    IV. GRANT & TOTAL WAR

    • War dragging

    • Break will of South

    • Everything fair game

    • Wm. Tecumseh Sherman


    SECTION 2 & 3 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

    • Give a specific supporting fact for this statement: Lincoln did not make the Emancipation Proclamation so slaves could be free.

    • What was the theory behind the success of Total War?


    SECTION 4

    Reconstruction


    I. What was Reconstruction?

    • A. Rebuilding of the South economically and politically.

    • 1. Physical rebuilding was secondary

    • 2. Politics: Republicans (North) vs Dems (South)


    II. Andrew Johnson’s Plan

    • 1. Pardon all except:

    • a. officers and officials

    • b. rich planter elite ($20,000+)

    • c. Why not RPE?

    • 2. State Conventions

    • a. Revoke secession

    • b. ratify 13th Amendment

    • 3. Former CSA officials earn 2nd chance

    • a. CSA VP in Senate!

    • b. Alarmed Republicans


    III. Radical Reconstruction

    Southern states must:

    Ratify (approve) 13th, 14th,15th Amendments

    • 13th: slavery illegal

    • 14th: Born in USA, you’re a citizen

    • 15th: Can’t be denied the vote based on color

  • Write new state constitutions

  • Accept military rule until above is met

    No former CSA officials ever allowed to vote or hold office again.


  • IMPEACHING JOHNSON

    • Congressional smack down for vetoes

    • High Crimes & Misdemeanors

    • 1 short

    • Powerless


    South Limits Blacks Politically

    • Gerrymandering

    • Poll tax

    • Literacy Test


    South is “Redeemed”

    • Amnesty Act of 1872

      1. voting back to CSA officials

      2. Could hold office again

      3. return of old leaders

      4. Dems regain control


    RECONSTRUCTION ENDS

    • Unclaimed Electoral Votes: 1876

    • Hayes’ deal

    • Union troops pull out

      • Return of racial oppression


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