chapter 4 civil war and reconstruction
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CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

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CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. I. Growth of Slavery. Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s to early 1800s North – Factories South – Cotton gin ( eli whitney ). What did not Northerners think about abolishing slavery?. II. The cause of tensions. A. Who had gov’t power 1. Sectionalism

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i growth of slavery
I. Growth of Slavery
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Mid 1700s to early 1800s
    • North – Factories
    • South – Cotton gin (eliwhitney)

What did not Northerners think about abolishing slavery?

ii the cause of tensions
II. The cause of tensions

A. Who had gov’t power

1. Sectionalism

B. What was economic basis

1. Farming or factories?

iii compromise of 1850
III. COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • 15 and 15: California?
  • Gold Rush ‘49
  • Extend compromise line?
compromise of 1850

Admits California as a free state

Upholds popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah

Settles Texas/New Mexico border dispute

Bans slave trade in Washington, D.C.

Includes Fugitive Slave Act

COMPROMISE OF 1850

Compromise of 1850

iv fugitive slave act
IV. FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT

Northerners now feel a part of the slave system.

Doesn’t sit well with many

v kansas nebraska act
V. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT
  • Two territories
  • Supposed to be free
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Bloody Kansas
  • Violence in Senate

a. Sumner

b. Brooks

vi dred scott case
VI. DRED SCOTT CASE
  • Slave in free territory (Wisc)
  • Supreme Court
  • Slaves are property; not people
  • Congressional power limited
vii south secedes
VII. South Secedes

Reasons

1. Lincoln elected 1860

  • Won no Southern states
  • South: no voice in national gov’t
slide11

2. Economics of cotton

a. worldwide demand

b. impact of “take care of your own first”?

vii civil war begins
VII. Civil War Begins
  • South Carolina

1. first state to secede

2. Fort Sumter: Charleston

3. Union holds fort

4. Confederates bombard (4/12-4/14, 1861)

slide16

Long-Term Causes

Immediate Cause

Event

South Seceeds and the Civil War Begins

section 1 essential questions
SECTION 1 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • Why was the fight over farming or factories as the basis of the economy truly stupid?
  • It can be said that there is nothing more American than solving the slavery issue by popular sovereignty. Explain.
  • What was the ultimate reason the southern states seceeded (separated) from the North?
sections 2 3

SECTIONS 2 & 3

The Civil War

lincoln s view on slavery
Lincoln’s view on slavery

“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”

—Abraham Lincoln, August 22, 1862,

quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln

From this, what is Lincoln’s obvious goal for the Civil War?

i battle of antietam summer 1862
I. Battle of ANTIETAM (Summer, 1862)

A. South invades North

    • Want British help
  • Emancipation Proclamation
ii emancipation proclamation
II. Emancipation Proclamation

A. Issued Sept. 1862: Rejoin w/ no penalty

B. Effective Jan. 1, ‘63: CSA slaves free

C. Politically driven

D. Effects (2):

iii general u s grant
III. General U.S. Grant
  • Alcoholic before war
  • If I die, I die attitude
  • General of the west
  • Shiloh: did what was necessary

1. “All I do is win, win, win”

E. Promoted 2 top general

i v grant total war
IV. GRANT & TOTAL WAR
  • War dragging
  • Break will of South
  • Everything fair game
  • Wm. Tecumseh Sherman
section 2 3 essential questions
SECTION 2 & 3 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • Give a specific supporting fact for this statement: Lincoln did not make the Emancipation Proclamation so slaves could be free.
  • What was the theory behind the success of Total War?
section 4

SECTION 4

Reconstruction

i what was reconstruction
I. What was Reconstruction?
  • A. Rebuilding of the South economically and politically.
  • 1. Physical rebuilding was secondary
  • 2. Politics: Republicans (North) vs Dems (South)
ii andrew johnson s plan
II. Andrew Johnson’s Plan
  • 1. Pardon all except:
  • a. officers and officials
  • b. rich planter elite ($20,000+)
  • c. Why not RPE?
  • 2. State Conventions
  • a. Revoke secession
  • b. ratify 13th Amendment
  • 3. Former CSA officials earn 2nd chance
  • a. CSA VP in Senate!
  • b. Alarmed Republicans
iii radical reconstruction
III. Radical Reconstruction

Southern states must:

Ratify (approve) 13th, 14th,15th Amendments

      • 13th: slavery illegal
      • 14th: Born in USA, you’re a citizen
      • 15th: Can’t be denied the vote based on color
  • Write new state constitutions
  • Accept military rule until above is met

No former CSA officials ever allowed to vote or hold office again.

impeaching johnson
IMPEACHING JOHNSON
  • Congressional smack down for vetoes
  • High Crimes & Misdemeanors
  • 1 short
  • Powerless
south limits blacks politically
South Limits Blacks Politically
  • Gerrymandering
  • Poll tax
  • Literacy Test
south is redeemed
South is “Redeemed”
  • Amnesty Act of 1872

1. voting back to CSA officials

2. Could hold office again

3. return of old leaders

4. Dems regain control

reconstruction ends
RECONSTRUCTION ENDS
  • Unclaimed Electoral Votes: 1876
  • Hayes’ deal
  • Union troops pull out
    • Return of racial oppression
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