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Lecture Presentation Software to accompany Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management Seventh Edition by Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown. Chapter 26. Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance. Questions to be answered:

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Chapter 26

Lecture Presentation Softwareto accompanyInvestment Analysis and Portfolio ManagementSeventh Editionby Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown

Chapter 26

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

Questions to be answered:

  • What major requirements do clients expect from their portfolio managers?

  • What can a portfolio manager do to attain superior performance?

  • What is the peer group comparison method of evaluating an investor’s performance?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance1

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • What is the Treynor portfolio performance measure?

  • What is the Sharpe portfolio performance measure?

  • What is the critical difference between the Treynor and Sharpe portfolio performance measures?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance2

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • What is the Jensen portfolio performance measure, and how does it relate to the Treynor measure?

  • What is the information ratio and how is it related to the other performance measures?

  • When evaluating a sample of portfolios, how do you determine how well diversified they are?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance3

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • What is the bias found regarding the composite performance measures?

  • What is the Fama portfolio performance measure and what information does it provide beyond other measures?

  • What is attribution analysis and how can it be used to distinguish between a portfolio manager’s market timing and security selection skills?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance4

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • What is the Roll “benchmark error” problem, and what are the two factors that are affected when computing portfolio performance measures?

  • What is the impact of global investing on the benchmark error problem?

  • What are customized benchmarks?

  • What are the important characteristics that any benchmark should possess?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance5

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • How do bond portfolio performance measures differ from equity portfolio performance measures?

  • In the Wagner and Tito bond portfolio performance measure, what is the measure of risk used?

  • What are the components of the Dietz, Fogler, and Hardy bond portfolio performance measure?

Chapter 26 evaluation of portfolio performance6

Chapter 26 - Evaluation of Portfolio Performance

  • What are the sources of return in the Fong, Pearson, and Vasicek bond portfolio performance measure?

  • What are the time-weighted and dollar-weighted returns and which should be reported under AIMR’s Performance Presentation Standards?

What is required of a portfolio manager

What is Required of a Portfolio Manager?

1.The ability to derive above-average returns for a given risk class

Superior risk-adjusted returns can be derived from either

  • superior timing or

  • superior security selection

    2. The ability to diversify the portfolio completely to eliminate unsystematic risk. relative to the portfolio’s benchmark

Composite portfolio performance measures

Composite Portfolio Performance Measures

  • Portfolio evaluation before 1960

    • rate of return within risk classes

  • Peer group comparisons

    • no explicit adjustment for risk

    • difficult to form comparable peer group

  • Treynor portfolio performance measure

    • market risk

    • individual security risk

    • introduced characteristic line

Treynor portfolio performance measure

Treynor Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Treynor recognized two components of risk

    • Risk from general market fluctuations

    • Risk from unique fluctuations in the securities in the portfolio

  • His measure of risk-adjusted performance focuses on the portfolio’s undiversifiable risk: market or systematic risk

Treynor portfolio performance measure1

Treynor Portfolio Performance Measure

  • The numerator is the risk premium

  • The denominator is a measure of risk

  • The expression is the risk premium return per unit of risk

  • Risk averse investors prefer to maximize this value

  • This assumes a completely diversified portfolio leaving systematic risk as the relevant risk

Treynor portfolio performance measure2

Treynor Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Comparing a portfolio’s T value to a similar measure for the market portfolio indicates whether the portfolio would plot above the SML

  • Calculate the T value for the aggregate market as follows:

Treynor portfolio performance measure3

Treynor Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Comparison to see whether actual return of portfolio G was above or below expectations can be made using:

Sharpe portfolio performance measure

Sharpe Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Risk premium earned per unit of risk

Treynor versus sharpe measure

Treynor versus Sharpe Measure

  • Sharpe uses standard deviation of returns as the measure of risk

  • Treynor measure uses beta (systematic risk)

  • Sharpe therefore evaluates the portfolio manager on the basis of both rate of return performance and diversification

  • The methods agree on rankings of completely diversified portfolios

  • Produce relative not absolute rankings of performance

Jensen portfolio performance measure

Jensen Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Also based on CAPM

  • Expected return on any security or portfolio is

Jensen portfolio performance measure1

Jensen Portfolio Performance Measure

  • Also based on CAPM

  • Expected return on any security or portfolio is

    Where: E(Rj) = the expected return on security

    RFR = the one-period risk-free interest rate

    j= the systematic risk for security or portfolio j

    E(Rm) = the expected return on the market portfolio of risky assets

The information ratio performance measure

The Information Ratio Performance Measure

  • Appraisal ratio

  • measures average return in excess of benchmark portfolio divided by the standard deviation of this excess return

Application of portfolio performance measures

Application of Portfolio Performance Measures

Potential bias of one parameter measures

Potential Bias of One-Parameter Measures

  • positive relationship between the composite performance measures and the risk involved

  • alpha can be biased downward for those portfolios designed to limit downside risk

Components of investment performance

Components of Investment Performance

  • Fama suggested overall performance, which is its return in excess of the risk-free rate

    Portfolio Risk + Selectivity

  • Further, if there is a difference between the risk level specified by the investor and the actual risk level adopted by the portfolio manager, this can be further refined

    Investor’s Risk + Manager’s Risk + Selectivity

Components of investment performance1

Components of Investment Performance

  • The selectivity measure is used to assess the manager’s investment prowess

  • The relationship between expected return and risk for the portfolio is:

Components of investment performance2

Components of Investment Performance

  • The market line then becomes a benchmark for the manager’s performance

Components of investment performance3

Components of Investment Performance

  • The selectivity component can be broken into two parts

    • gross selectivity is made up of net selectivity plus diversification

Components of investment performance4

Components of Investment Performance

  • Assuming the investor has a target level of risk for the portfolio equal to bT, the portion of overall performance due to risk can be assessed as follows:

Relationship among performance measures

Relationship Among Performance Measures

  • Treynor

  • Sharpe

  • Jensen

  • Information Ratio

  • Fama net selectivity measures

    Highly correlated, but not perfectly so

Performance attribution analysis

Performance Attribution Analysis

  • Allocation effect

  • Selection effect

Measuring market timing skills

Measuring Market Timing Skills

  • Tactical asset allocation (TAA)

  • Attribution analysis is inappropriate

    • indexes make selection effect not relevant

    • multiple changes to asset class weightings during an investment period

  • Regression-based measurement

Measuring market timing skills1

Measuring Market Timing Skills

Factors that affect use of performance measures

Factors That Affect Use of Performance Measures

  • Market portfolio difficult to approximate

  • Benchmark error

    • can effect slope of SML

    • can effect calculation of Beta

    • greater concern with global investing

    • problem is one of measurement

  • Sharpe measure not as dependent on market portfolio

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