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Chapter 26

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Lecture Presentation Softwareto accompanyInvestment Analysis and Portfolio ManagementSeventh Editionby Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown

Chapter 26

Questions to be answered:

- What major requirements do clients expect from their portfolio managers?
- What can a portfolio manager do to attain superior performance?
- What is the peer group comparison method of evaluating an investor’s performance?

- What is the Treynor portfolio performance measure?
- What is the Sharpe portfolio performance measure?
- What is the critical difference between the Treynor and Sharpe portfolio performance measures?

- What is the Jensen portfolio performance measure, and how does it relate to the Treynor measure?
- What is the information ratio and how is it related to the other performance measures?
- When evaluating a sample of portfolios, how do you determine how well diversified they are?

- What is the bias found regarding the composite performance measures?
- What is the Fama portfolio performance measure and what information does it provide beyond other measures?
- What is attribution analysis and how can it be used to distinguish between a portfolio manager’s market timing and security selection skills?

- What is the Roll “benchmark error” problem, and what are the two factors that are affected when computing portfolio performance measures?
- What is the impact of global investing on the benchmark error problem?
- What are customized benchmarks?
- What are the important characteristics that any benchmark should possess?

- How do bond portfolio performance measures differ from equity portfolio performance measures?
- In the Wagner and Tito bond portfolio performance measure, what is the measure of risk used?
- What are the components of the Dietz, Fogler, and Hardy bond portfolio performance measure?

- What are the sources of return in the Fong, Pearson, and Vasicek bond portfolio performance measure?
- What are the time-weighted and dollar-weighted returns and which should be reported under AIMR’s Performance Presentation Standards?

1.The ability to derive above-average returns for a given risk class

Superior risk-adjusted returns can be derived from either

- superior timing or
- superior security selection
2. The ability to diversify the portfolio completely to eliminate unsystematic risk. relative to the portfolio’s benchmark

- Portfolio evaluation before 1960
- rate of return within risk classes

- Peer group comparisons
- no explicit adjustment for risk
- difficult to form comparable peer group

- Treynor portfolio performance measure
- market risk
- individual security risk
- introduced characteristic line

- Treynor recognized two components of risk
- Risk from general market fluctuations
- Risk from unique fluctuations in the securities in the portfolio

- His measure of risk-adjusted performance focuses on the portfolio’s undiversifiable risk: market or systematic risk

- The numerator is the risk premium
- The denominator is a measure of risk
- The expression is the risk premium return per unit of risk
- Risk averse investors prefer to maximize this value
- This assumes a completely diversified portfolio leaving systematic risk as the relevant risk

- Comparing a portfolio’s T value to a similar measure for the market portfolio indicates whether the portfolio would plot above the SML
- Calculate the T value for the aggregate market as follows:

- Comparison to see whether actual return of portfolio G was above or below expectations can be made using:

- Risk premium earned per unit of risk

- Sharpe uses standard deviation of returns as the measure of risk
- Treynor measure uses beta (systematic risk)
- Sharpe therefore evaluates the portfolio manager on the basis of both rate of return performance and diversification
- The methods agree on rankings of completely diversified portfolios
- Produce relative not absolute rankings of performance

- Also based on CAPM
- Expected return on any security or portfolio is

- Also based on CAPM
- Expected return on any security or portfolio is
Where: E(Rj) = the expected return on security

RFR = the one-period risk-free interest rate

j= the systematic risk for security or portfolio j

E(Rm) = the expected return on the market portfolio of risky assets

- Appraisal ratio
- measures average return in excess of benchmark portfolio divided by the standard deviation of this excess return

- positive relationship between the composite performance measures and the risk involved
- alpha can be biased downward for those portfolios designed to limit downside risk

- Fama suggested overall performance, which is its return in excess of the risk-free rate
Portfolio Risk + Selectivity

- Further, if there is a difference between the risk level specified by the investor and the actual risk level adopted by the portfolio manager, this can be further refined
Investor’s Risk + Manager’s Risk + Selectivity

- The selectivity measure is used to assess the manager’s investment prowess
- The relationship between expected return and risk for the portfolio is:

- The market line then becomes a benchmark for the manager’s performance

- The selectivity component can be broken into two parts
- gross selectivity is made up of net selectivity plus diversification

- Assuming the investor has a target level of risk for the portfolio equal to bT, the portion of overall performance due to risk can be assessed as follows:

- Treynor
- Sharpe
- Jensen
- Information Ratio
- Fama net selectivity measures
Highly correlated, but not perfectly so

- Allocation effect
- Selection effect

- Tactical asset allocation (TAA)
- Attribution analysis is inappropriate
- indexes make selection effect not relevant
- multiple changes to asset class weightings during an investment period

- Regression-based measurement

- Market portfolio difficult to approximate
- Benchmark error
- can effect slope of SML
- can effect calculation of Beta
- greater concern with global investing
- problem is one of measurement

- Sharpe measure not as dependent on market portfolio