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Chapter 26 . Section 1 - The Road to War. Dictators. They control by force and fear Not the U.S. Hitler and Mussolini. Adolf Hitler. Came to power in the 1920’s Fought in WWI Led Germany into WWII. Benito Mussolini. Italian Dictator Believed that Italy had been mistreated in the

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Chapter 26

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Chapter 26

Section 1 - The Road to War


Dictators

  • They control by force and fear

  • Not the U.S.

  • Hitler and Mussolini


Adolf Hitler

  • Came to power in the 1920’s

  • Fought in WWI

  • Led Germany into WWII


Benito Mussolini

  • Italian Dictator

  • Believed that Italy had been mistreated in the

  • Treaty of Versailles

  • El-Duce


Fascism

  • Extreme nationalism and racism


Fascist Party

  • Led by Mussolini in Italy

  • Forced the King to declare Mussolini the head of the new government


Annexation

  • To take over a country by force


Ethiopia

  • An African Nation that was taken over by Italy


Albania

  • Annexed by Italy in 1939

  • After Italy annexed Ethiopia it took Albania


Germany

  • Suffered from the Great Depression

  • Was still mad about the Treaty of Versailles

  • Allied with Italy in 1936


National Socialist German Workers Party

  • Led by Hitler

  • “The Nazi Party”


Nazi Party

  • Openly racist

  • Believed that all Germans were superior to all other people


Jews

  • In the Bible- the Jews were the descendants of Abraham

  • Moses led the Jews out of Egypt to escape Pharaoh


Anti-Semitism

  • Hatred of all Jews

  • The idea that Jews are beneath all other races


Totalitarian Rule

  • A ruler who controls everything

  • They do not have to answer to anyone


Totalitarian State

  • Where a single party and its leader control everyone and everything


Japan

  • Also suffered from the Great Depression

  • Dictators rose to power

  • They started flexing their muscles in Asia


Manchuria

  • Was attacked by Japan in 1936


Axis Powers

  • The Bad Guys

  • Germany

  • Italy

  • Japan


Joseph Stalin

  • Ruled the Soviet Union

  • Ruled by force and fear


American Neutrality

  • Stay out of the war

  • We were in bad enough shape already


Why did we stay Neutral?

  • Most of Europe still owed us money from WWI

  • We were still suffering from the Depression also


Germany Started “it”

  • Rhineland

  • Austria

  • Sudetenland


The Rhineland

  • The land west of the Rhine River

  • Was established as a neutral zone


Austria

  • Hitler insisted that Germany be unified with Austria

  • They speak German

  • It was annexed in 1938


The Sudetenland

  • An area in Czechoslovakia where German speaking people lived


Munich Conference

  • Britain and France give in

  • Hitler promised not to take annex any more land


Appeasement

  • Giving in to demands


Hitler Takes Over

  • He sends all non Germans into Captivity


Weakness

  • Hitler took advantage of this appeasement and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia


Poland

  • Hitler was worried about making Stalin mad because it was so close to Russia


Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact

  • Allowed Hitler to use Poland without fear of Soviet aggression

  • This shocked and scared the world


Section 2


Hitler enters Poland

  • Britain and The Soviet Union declares war on Germany


German “Blitzkrieg”

  • Lightning War

  • Swift and fierce


Poland does the Splits

  • Germany and The Soviet Union split Poland


Baltic Republics

  • Territories along the Baltic Sea


Finland

  • Taken over the Soviets in 1940


Front

  • The front line in a war zone


Maginot Line

  • A string of steel and concrete bunkers along the German border from Switzerland to Belgium


Expansion

  • Hitler took

  • Denmark

  • Norway

  • The Netherlands and Belgium


Allies

  • Great Britain and France

  • Soon, the U.S. and the Soviet Union


Dunkirk

  • A port on the English Channel in Northern France


The English Channel

  • Narrow strip of ocean between England and Europe


The Somme River

  • Bordered France and the German front line


Axis Powers

  • Germany

  • Italy

  • Japan


The Battle of Britain

  • Britain was the only thing Hitler didn’t have yet


London was destroyed

  • London is the capital of Great Britain


Winston Churchill

  • The Prime Minister of Great Britain


R.A.F.

  • British Royal Air Force

  • Stopped the German air attacks


Germany Turns East

  • Hitler wanted to destroy the Soviet Union

  • He hated communist almost as much as Jews


The Soviets Join the Allies

  • The Soviet union had to join the Allies in order to survive


America and the War

  • America sympathized with the Allies

  • We still didn’t join in the war


America First Committee

  • The group of people who advised the U.S. to stay out of the war


Roosevelt Prepares for War

  • The navy was built up

  • We started selling weapons to the Allies


Selective Service and Training Act

  • The first Peace-Time Draft in history

  • Applied to American men between the ages of 21 and 35


The 1940 Election

  • Roosevelt runs for a 3rd term as President

  • Roosevelt promised to stay out of the war

  • Blue is F.D.R.


The U.S. gets more involved

  • Congress approves the Lend-Lease Act


Lend-Lease Act

  • The U.S. could supply weapons to anyone attacked by the Axis Powers


Germany shoots at the U.S

  • We were escorting our supplies into the war zone

  • Germany shot at us

  • We started shooting back


The Atlantic Charter

  • Secured our effort to escort our ships into the War Zone


Fear and Want

  • Being a scaredy cat

  • Being Afraid


Disarmament

  • Giving up military weapons


Indochina

  • Japan figured if Germany was taking over places

  • They could too


The U.S. responds

  • We froze all Japanese assets in the U.S.

  • We stopped selling oil, gas, and other things that Japan needed to survive


Fumimaro Konoye

  • The Japanese Prime minister that resigned

  • He didn’t believe that Japan could defeat the U.S.


Hideki Tojo

  • Japan’s new

    Prime Minister


Attack on Pearl Harbor

  • 7:55 am

  • Sunday Morning

  • December 7th, 1941


Awakened a Sleeping Giant

  • Hundreds of planes were destroyed

  • Ships were sank

  • Lives were lost

    Japan just messed Up


Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan


The U.S. Joins the War

  • We joined the allies

  • The Axis Powers declare war on the U.S. on December 11th


U.S.S. Arizona

  • Sunk by the Japanese

  • Became a museum in Pearle Harbor


Section 3

  • The Home Front


Military Build Up

  • 15 million men joined the armed forces

  • 250,000 women joined also


W.A.C.

  • Women’s Army Corp


W.A.S.P

  • Women Airforce Service Pilots


W.A.V.E.S.

  • Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Services in the Navy

  • They were nurses, and secretaries


Mobilization

  • Military and civilian preparations for war


War Production Board

  • Supervised to conversion of industries to war production


Office of Price Administration

  • Set limits on prices and rent for housing


National War Labor Board

  • Helped resolve labor disputes that slowed down production


Financing the War

  • The U.S. spent 10 times the amount of WWI

  • 320 billion dollars


Revenue Act of 1942

  • Raised corporate taxes and made all Americans to pay income taxes


War Bonds

  • Allowed people to invest in the War effort


Wartime America

  • Factories produced 70,000 ships

  • 100,000 tanks

  • Millions of guns

    The assembly line sped this process up


The War Helps

  • People could find jobs

  • Income rose

  • Spending increased


Shortages

  • With supplies going to the War effort

  • People couldn’t get certain unnecessary things


Rationed

  • When goods are limited to a few per person


Victory Gardens

  • Save money by growing your own veggies


Civil Defense

  • Protect America

  • Coastal cities turned off the lights at night to prevent attacks


Office of War Information

  • Promoted patriotism

  • Kept people involved in the war effort

  • Broadcast war updates on the radio and T.V.


Women and Minorities

  • Women took the jobs of men

  • They were usually paid less than men


Rosie the Riveter

  • Slogan promoting women in the workforce


African Americans

  • 1 million served in the armed forces

  • The Armed Forces were integrated in 1948


Tuskegee Airmen

  • The 332nd Fighter Group

  • African American Pilots trained in Tuskegee Alabama


Ben Davis Jr.

  • First African American General in the U.S. Air Force

  • His father was the first African American General in the Army


A. Phillip Randolph

  • Demanded an end to discrimination in the defense industry


The Population Shift

  • African Americans left the south to go north in search of work


Native Americans

  • Weren’t treated nearly as bad a African Americans

  • But they weren’t welcome in a fox hole either


Ira Hayes

  • Was present when the flag was raised on Mount Sura Bache on the Island of Iwo Jima

  • He was an American Indian


Code Talkers

  • In order to keep radio messages a secret

  • Navajo Indians were recruited to send radio messages from the front lines

  • The Japanese couldn’t figure out what language it was


Bracero Program

  • Recruited workers from Mexico


Japanese Americans

  • Nisei – citizens by birth

  • Most Americans persecuted the Japanese because of Pearl Harbor


Internment Camps

  • Places where the Japanese were relocated so that they could be watched for the next 3 years

  • They might have been spies


The U.S. Apology

  • In 1988, each survivor got an apology and

  • $ 20,000.00


Ch. 26 – Section 4

  • Section 4

  • We’re Gonna Attack


The U.S. Enters The War

  • January 1st, 1942

  • The U.S. declares war

  • We joined the Allied Powers


Allied Leaders

  • Roosevelt

  • Churchill

  • Stalin


Axis Powers

  • Hitler

  • Mussolini

  • Tojo


North Africa

  • Where the Allies attacked first


Erwin Rommel

  • The Desert Fox

  • Nazi tank commander in North Africa


Suez Canal

  • connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea

  • It is between Egypt and Saudi Arabia


Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Commander of Allied troops in Africa


George S. Patton

  • American General that ran Rommel out of North Africa

  • He carried a revolver with an Ivory handle

  • He was called a cowboy


Sicily

  • Patton’s next stop

  • It is an island off the coast of Italy

  • They overthrew Mussolini


Mussolini

  • Overthrown by his own people

  • He was thrown off a building with a rope around his neck


Monte Casino

  • The Italian monastery in the middle of Italy


Anzio

  • The fight before the Allies took Rome


Rome

  • The Capital of Italy

  • It was liberated in June 1944


Air War over Germany


The Tide Turns

  • The Soviets had been the main fighting force so far

Blows from 3 sides will speed victory


Leningrad

  • The Germans starved the Soviets out

  • And still lost

Lets Defend Lenin’s City


Stalingrad

  • Germany does the same thing to them


Invasion Preparation

  • If we’re going, we’d better get ready


Operation “Overlord”

  • The Allies helped plan the invasion

  • They watched the coast


The Invasion

  • Gold

  • Sword

  • Juno

  • Omaha

  • Utah


The Radio Address

  • Everyone listened to the radio

  • They wanted to know how it was going


Paratroopers

  • Flew in on Gliders

  • Dropped in by parachute

  • They dropped decoys first

  • These dolls hit the ground and popped like fireworks


General Omar Bradley

  • Commanded the D-Day Invasion


D-Day

  • June 6th, 1944

  • The Allied Troops attack

  • Normandy in France


Land Mines

  • Burried in the sand

  • They pop up, and explode


Paris

  • Liberated on August 25th, 1944

  • Germany had controlled France but not anymore


Battle of the Bulge

  • The German army drove the Allies into a deep pocket

  • The Allies held them off and defeated the last major attack


Berlin

  • The soviet troops surrounded Berlin

  • Berlin is the capital of Germany


Victory in Europe

  • Germany couldn’t fight on two fronts

  • We Win

  • They have to walk home


V-E Day

  • Victory in Europe Day

  • May 8th, 1945


Death of a President

  • Roosevelt suffered from Polio

  • He died in Warm Springs, Georgia

  • April 12th, 1945


Harry S. Truman

  • Roosevelt’s Vice President

  • He takes office


The Holocaust

  • The Final Solution

  • The extermination of all of the Jews in Europe

Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS


Genocide

  • Wiping out an entire race of people

  • The Jews were murdered and then burned so that no one could prove what happened


Concentration Camps

  • Prison Camps

  • Death Camps


Slave Labor

  • Jews produced

  • Bombs

  • Tanks

  • Ect……

The Sign Says : Work Sets You Free


Auswitz

  • A death camp in Poland where 4 million Jews were killed here alone


Where will the Jews go?

  • They want to come to America

  • We aren’t happy


Total

  • 6 million Jews

  • Hitler also exterminated Gypsies, Communists, and Handicapped peoples


Remembrance

  • The Holocaust Museum

  • The WWII Memorial


Section 5

  • War in the Pacific


Sphere of Influence

  • When everything inside the sphere is controlled by one country


The Pacific Front

  • Pearl Harbor

  • Wake Island

  • Guam


The Philippines

  • The Japanese had taken over several islands in the Pacific


Douglas MacArthur

  • Commander of American Troops in the Pacific

  • Most decorated WWI Soldier


Audi Murphy

  • Most decorated soldier in WWII


I’ll be Back

  • MacArthur promises the Pilipino rebels that he’ll return


MacArthur and Nimitz

  • General MacArthur

  • F.D.R.

  • Admiral Nimitz


Bataan

  • Small island west of Manila


Corregidor

  • A small island fortress


The Philippines Fall

  • We surrendered


Bataan Death March

  • 22,000 soldiers died as the Japanese made them march from Bataan to a camp 60 miles away


Tokyo

  • The city in Japan bombed during the Doolittle Raids


Doolittle Raids

  • Bombing raids on Tokyo

  • Led by James Doolittle


Coral Sea

  • Stopped the Japanese from invading Australia


Admiral Nagumo

  • He led the Japanese fleet


Midway Island

  • 1st major Japanese loss


Ensign. George Gay

  • Watched the Battle of Midway from the ocean


Island Hopping

  • Skipping one island and attacking another one will confuse the Japanese


Japanese Balloon Bombs

  • The Japanese had designed balloons that would drift over the U.S. and drop bombs


Guadalcanal


Battle of Leyte Gulf

  • The largest Naval Battle in History

  • US8 fleet carriers8 light carriers18 escort carriers12 battleships24 cruisers141 destroyers and destroyer escortsMany PT boats, submarines, and fleet auxiliariesAbout 1,500 planesLosses for US1,500+ dead1 light aircraft carrier2 escort carriers2 destroyers1 destroyer escort sunk

  • Japan1 fleet carrier3 light carriers9 battleships14 heavy cruisers6 light cruisers35+ destroyers300+ planes Japan losses10,000+ dead;1 fleet carrier3 light carriers3 battleships8 cruisers,12 destroyers sunk


U.S.S. Indianapolis

  • Only 317 men survived

  • 880 Were Killed


USS Indianapolis

  • Sank at Coral Sea

  • Crew was eaten by SHARKS


Iwo Jima

  • WWII Memorial


Mount Suribachi – Iwo Jima

  • 23,000 troops

  • 11 miles of tunnels


Okinawa

  • Southern island of Japan


Kamikazes

  • Flying planes into targets in order to inflict more damage


Albert Einstein

  • Was a Physicist


Manhattan Project

  • Secret plan to build the Atomic Bomb

  • Los-Alamos New Mexico


Potsdam Declaration

  • Warned Japan to surrender

  • When they Refused


We Drop a little boy on them

  • Japan refused to surrender

  • Fat Man and Little Boy

  • From the Enola Gay


The Atomic Bomb

  • Dropped on Hiroshima

  • August 6th 1945

  • Killed 70,000


Hiroshima

  • 135,000 dead from the bomb itself

  • Radiation Killed 90,000 to 140,000


Nagasaki

  • Three Days Later

  • Killed 40,000 from the bomb

  • 25,000 more from radiation


V-J Day

  • August 15th, 1945

  • Japan Surrenders

  • Victory over Japan


The USS Missouri

  • Japan surrenders

  • WWII is over


40 million

  • That’s how many people died during WWII


Costs of War

  • The Soviets lost the most due to destruction

  • Germany gives up lots of territory


Nuremburg Trials

  • Where Nazi officials were put on trial for War Crimes against Humanity


The End of WWII


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