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Chapter 26 . Section 1 - The Road to War. Dictators. They control by force and fear Not the U.S. Hitler and Mussolini. Adolf Hitler. Came to power in the 1920’s Fought in WWI Led Germany into WWII. Benito Mussolini. Italian Dictator Believed that Italy had been mistreated in the

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Chapter 26

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Chapter 26

Section 1 - The Road to War


  • They control by force and fear

  • Not the U.S.

  • Hitler and Mussolini

Adolf Hitler

  • Came to power in the 1920’s

  • Fought in WWI

  • Led Germany into WWII

Benito Mussolini

  • Italian Dictator

  • Believed that Italy had been mistreated in the

  • Treaty of Versailles

  • El-Duce


  • Extreme nationalism and racism

Fascist Party

  • Led by Mussolini in Italy

  • Forced the King to declare Mussolini the head of the new government


  • To take over a country by force


  • An African Nation that was taken over by Italy


  • Annexed by Italy in 1939

  • After Italy annexed Ethiopia it took Albania


  • Suffered from the Great Depression

  • Was still mad about the Treaty of Versailles

  • Allied with Italy in 1936

National Socialist German Workers Party

  • Led by Hitler

  • “The Nazi Party”

Nazi Party

  • Openly racist

  • Believed that all Germans were superior to all other people


  • In the Bible- the Jews were the descendants of Abraham

  • Moses led the Jews out of Egypt to escape Pharaoh


  • Hatred of all Jews

  • The idea that Jews are beneath all other races

Totalitarian Rule

  • A ruler who controls everything

  • They do not have to answer to anyone

Totalitarian State

  • Where a single party and its leader control everyone and everything


  • Also suffered from the Great Depression

  • Dictators rose to power

  • They started flexing their muscles in Asia


  • Was attacked by Japan in 1936

Axis Powers

  • The Bad Guys

  • Germany

  • Italy

  • Japan

Joseph Stalin

  • Ruled the Soviet Union

  • Ruled by force and fear

American Neutrality

  • Stay out of the war

  • We were in bad enough shape already

Why did we stay Neutral?

  • Most of Europe still owed us money from WWI

  • We were still suffering from the Depression also

Germany Started “it”

  • Rhineland

  • Austria

  • Sudetenland

The Rhineland

  • The land west of the Rhine River

  • Was established as a neutral zone


  • Hitler insisted that Germany be unified with Austria

  • They speak German

  • It was annexed in 1938

The Sudetenland

  • An area in Czechoslovakia where German speaking people lived

Munich Conference

  • Britain and France give in

  • Hitler promised not to take annex any more land


  • Giving in to demands

Hitler Takes Over

  • He sends all non Germans into Captivity


  • Hitler took advantage of this appeasement and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia


  • Hitler was worried about making Stalin mad because it was so close to Russia

Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact

  • Allowed Hitler to use Poland without fear of Soviet aggression

  • This shocked and scared the world

Section 2

Hitler enters Poland

  • Britain and The Soviet Union declares war on Germany

German “Blitzkrieg”

  • Lightning War

  • Swift and fierce

Poland does the Splits

  • Germany and The Soviet Union split Poland

Baltic Republics

  • Territories along the Baltic Sea


  • Taken over the Soviets in 1940


  • The front line in a war zone

Maginot Line

  • A string of steel and concrete bunkers along the German border from Switzerland to Belgium


  • Hitler took

  • Denmark

  • Norway

  • The Netherlands and Belgium


  • Great Britain and France

  • Soon, the U.S. and the Soviet Union


  • A port on the English Channel in Northern France

The English Channel

  • Narrow strip of ocean between England and Europe

The Somme River

  • Bordered France and the German front line

Axis Powers

  • Germany

  • Italy

  • Japan

The Battle of Britain

  • Britain was the only thing Hitler didn’t have yet

London was destroyed

  • London is the capital of Great Britain

Winston Churchill

  • The Prime Minister of Great Britain


  • British Royal Air Force

  • Stopped the German air attacks

Germany Turns East

  • Hitler wanted to destroy the Soviet Union

  • He hated communist almost as much as Jews

The Soviets Join the Allies

  • The Soviet union had to join the Allies in order to survive

America and the War

  • America sympathized with the Allies

  • We still didn’t join in the war

America First Committee

  • The group of people who advised the U.S. to stay out of the war

Roosevelt Prepares for War

  • The navy was built up

  • We started selling weapons to the Allies

Selective Service and Training Act

  • The first Peace-Time Draft in history

  • Applied to American men between the ages of 21 and 35

The 1940 Election

  • Roosevelt runs for a 3rd term as President

  • Roosevelt promised to stay out of the war

  • Blue is F.D.R.

The U.S. gets more involved

  • Congress approves the Lend-Lease Act

Lend-Lease Act

  • The U.S. could supply weapons to anyone attacked by the Axis Powers

Germany shoots at the U.S

  • We were escorting our supplies into the war zone

  • Germany shot at us

  • We started shooting back

The Atlantic Charter

  • Secured our effort to escort our ships into the War Zone

Fear and Want

  • Being a scaredy cat

  • Being Afraid


  • Giving up military weapons


  • Japan figured if Germany was taking over places

  • They could too

The U.S. responds

  • We froze all Japanese assets in the U.S.

  • We stopped selling oil, gas, and other things that Japan needed to survive

Fumimaro Konoye

  • The Japanese Prime minister that resigned

  • He didn’t believe that Japan could defeat the U.S.

Hideki Tojo

  • Japan’s new

    Prime Minister

Attack on Pearl Harbor

  • 7:55 am

  • Sunday Morning

  • December 7th, 1941

Awakened a Sleeping Giant

  • Hundreds of planes were destroyed

  • Ships were sank

  • Lives were lost

    Japan just messed Up

Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan

The U.S. Joins the War

  • We joined the allies

  • The Axis Powers declare war on the U.S. on December 11th

U.S.S. Arizona

  • Sunk by the Japanese

  • Became a museum in Pearle Harbor

Section 3

  • The Home Front

Military Build Up

  • 15 million men joined the armed forces

  • 250,000 women joined also


  • Women’s Army Corp


  • Women Airforce Service Pilots


  • Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Services in the Navy

  • They were nurses, and secretaries


  • Military and civilian preparations for war

War Production Board

  • Supervised to conversion of industries to war production

Office of Price Administration

  • Set limits on prices and rent for housing

National War Labor Board

  • Helped resolve labor disputes that slowed down production

Financing the War

  • The U.S. spent 10 times the amount of WWI

  • 320 billion dollars

Revenue Act of 1942

  • Raised corporate taxes and made all Americans to pay income taxes

War Bonds

  • Allowed people to invest in the War effort

Wartime America

  • Factories produced 70,000 ships

  • 100,000 tanks

  • Millions of guns

    The assembly line sped this process up

The War Helps

  • People could find jobs

  • Income rose

  • Spending increased


  • With supplies going to the War effort

  • People couldn’t get certain unnecessary things


  • When goods are limited to a few per person

Victory Gardens

  • Save money by growing your own veggies

Civil Defense

  • Protect America

  • Coastal cities turned off the lights at night to prevent attacks

Office of War Information

  • Promoted patriotism

  • Kept people involved in the war effort

  • Broadcast war updates on the radio and T.V.

Women and Minorities

  • Women took the jobs of men

  • They were usually paid less than men

Rosie the Riveter

  • Slogan promoting women in the workforce

African Americans

  • 1 million served in the armed forces

  • The Armed Forces were integrated in 1948

Tuskegee Airmen

  • The 332nd Fighter Group

  • African American Pilots trained in Tuskegee Alabama

Ben Davis Jr.

  • First African American General in the U.S. Air Force

  • His father was the first African American General in the Army

A. Phillip Randolph

  • Demanded an end to discrimination in the defense industry

The Population Shift

  • African Americans left the south to go north in search of work

Native Americans

  • Weren’t treated nearly as bad a African Americans

  • But they weren’t welcome in a fox hole either

Ira Hayes

  • Was present when the flag was raised on Mount Sura Bache on the Island of Iwo Jima

  • He was an American Indian

Code Talkers

  • In order to keep radio messages a secret

  • Navajo Indians were recruited to send radio messages from the front lines

  • The Japanese couldn’t figure out what language it was

Bracero Program

  • Recruited workers from Mexico

Japanese Americans

  • Nisei – citizens by birth

  • Most Americans persecuted the Japanese because of Pearl Harbor

Internment Camps

  • Places where the Japanese were relocated so that they could be watched for the next 3 years

  • They might have been spies

The U.S. Apology

  • In 1988, each survivor got an apology and

  • $ 20,000.00

Ch. 26 – Section 4

  • Section 4

  • We’re Gonna Attack

The U.S. Enters The War

  • January 1st, 1942

  • The U.S. declares war

  • We joined the Allied Powers

Allied Leaders

  • Roosevelt

  • Churchill

  • Stalin

Axis Powers

  • Hitler

  • Mussolini

  • Tojo

North Africa

  • Where the Allies attacked first

Erwin Rommel

  • The Desert Fox

  • Nazi tank commander in North Africa

Suez Canal

  • connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea

  • It is between Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Commander of Allied troops in Africa

George S. Patton

  • American General that ran Rommel out of North Africa

  • He carried a revolver with an Ivory handle

  • He was called a cowboy


  • Patton’s next stop

  • It is an island off the coast of Italy

  • They overthrew Mussolini


  • Overthrown by his own people

  • He was thrown off a building with a rope around his neck

Monte Casino

  • The Italian monastery in the middle of Italy


  • The fight before the Allies took Rome


  • The Capital of Italy

  • It was liberated in June 1944

Air War over Germany

The Tide Turns

  • The Soviets had been the main fighting force so far

Blows from 3 sides will speed victory


  • The Germans starved the Soviets out

  • And still lost

Lets Defend Lenin’s City


  • Germany does the same thing to them

Invasion Preparation

  • If we’re going, we’d better get ready

Operation “Overlord”

  • The Allies helped plan the invasion

  • They watched the coast

The Invasion

  • Gold

  • Sword

  • Juno

  • Omaha

  • Utah

The Radio Address

  • Everyone listened to the radio

  • They wanted to know how it was going


  • Flew in on Gliders

  • Dropped in by parachute

  • They dropped decoys first

  • These dolls hit the ground and popped like fireworks

General Omar Bradley

  • Commanded the D-Day Invasion


  • June 6th, 1944

  • The Allied Troops attack

  • Normandy in France

Land Mines

  • Burried in the sand

  • They pop up, and explode


  • Liberated on August 25th, 1944

  • Germany had controlled France but not anymore

Battle of the Bulge

  • The German army drove the Allies into a deep pocket

  • The Allies held them off and defeated the last major attack


  • The soviet troops surrounded Berlin

  • Berlin is the capital of Germany

Victory in Europe

  • Germany couldn’t fight on two fronts

  • We Win

  • They have to walk home

V-E Day

  • Victory in Europe Day

  • May 8th, 1945

Death of a President

  • Roosevelt suffered from Polio

  • He died in Warm Springs, Georgia

  • April 12th, 1945

Harry S. Truman

  • Roosevelt’s Vice President

  • He takes office

The Holocaust

  • The Final Solution

  • The extermination of all of the Jews in Europe

Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS


  • Wiping out an entire race of people

  • The Jews were murdered and then burned so that no one could prove what happened

Concentration Camps

  • Prison Camps

  • Death Camps

Slave Labor

  • Jews produced

  • Bombs

  • Tanks

  • Ect……

The Sign Says : Work Sets You Free


  • A death camp in Poland where 4 million Jews were killed here alone

Where will the Jews go?

  • They want to come to America

  • We aren’t happy


  • 6 million Jews

  • Hitler also exterminated Gypsies, Communists, and Handicapped peoples


  • The Holocaust Museum

  • The WWII Memorial

Section 5

  • War in the Pacific

Sphere of Influence

  • When everything inside the sphere is controlled by one country

The Pacific Front

  • Pearl Harbor

  • Wake Island

  • Guam

The Philippines

  • The Japanese had taken over several islands in the Pacific

Douglas MacArthur

  • Commander of American Troops in the Pacific

  • Most decorated WWI Soldier

Audi Murphy

  • Most decorated soldier in WWII

I’ll be Back

  • MacArthur promises the Pilipino rebels that he’ll return

MacArthur and Nimitz

  • General MacArthur

  • F.D.R.

  • Admiral Nimitz


  • Small island west of Manila


  • A small island fortress

The Philippines Fall

  • We surrendered

Bataan Death March

  • 22,000 soldiers died as the Japanese made them march from Bataan to a camp 60 miles away


  • The city in Japan bombed during the Doolittle Raids

Doolittle Raids

  • Bombing raids on Tokyo

  • Led by James Doolittle

Coral Sea

  • Stopped the Japanese from invading Australia

Admiral Nagumo

  • He led the Japanese fleet

Midway Island

  • 1st major Japanese loss

Ensign. George Gay

  • Watched the Battle of Midway from the ocean

Island Hopping

  • Skipping one island and attacking another one will confuse the Japanese

Japanese Balloon Bombs

  • The Japanese had designed balloons that would drift over the U.S. and drop bombs


Battle of Leyte Gulf

  • The largest Naval Battle in History

  • US8 fleet carriers8 light carriers18 escort carriers12 battleships24 cruisers141 destroyers and destroyer escortsMany PT boats, submarines, and fleet auxiliariesAbout 1,500 planesLosses for US1,500+ dead1 light aircraft carrier2 escort carriers2 destroyers1 destroyer escort sunk

  • Japan1 fleet carrier3 light carriers9 battleships14 heavy cruisers6 light cruisers35+ destroyers300+ planes Japan losses10,000+ dead;1 fleet carrier3 light carriers3 battleships8 cruisers,12 destroyers sunk

U.S.S. Indianapolis

  • Only 317 men survived

  • 880 Were Killed

USS Indianapolis

  • Sank at Coral Sea

  • Crew was eaten by SHARKS

Iwo Jima

  • WWII Memorial

Mount Suribachi – Iwo Jima

  • 23,000 troops

  • 11 miles of tunnels


  • Southern island of Japan


  • Flying planes into targets in order to inflict more damage

Albert Einstein

  • Was a Physicist

Manhattan Project

  • Secret plan to build the Atomic Bomb

  • Los-Alamos New Mexico

Potsdam Declaration

  • Warned Japan to surrender

  • When they Refused

We Drop a little boy on them

  • Japan refused to surrender

  • Fat Man and Little Boy

  • From the Enola Gay

The Atomic Bomb

  • Dropped on Hiroshima

  • August 6th 1945

  • Killed 70,000


  • 135,000 dead from the bomb itself

  • Radiation Killed 90,000 to 140,000


  • Three Days Later

  • Killed 40,000 from the bomb

  • 25,000 more from radiation

V-J Day

  • August 15th, 1945

  • Japan Surrenders

  • Victory over Japan

The USS Missouri

  • Japan surrenders

  • WWII is over

40 million

  • That’s how many people died during WWII

Costs of War

  • The Soviets lost the most due to destruction

  • Germany gives up lots of territory

Nuremburg Trials

  • Where Nazi officials were put on trial for War Crimes against Humanity

The End of WWII

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