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Naming Compounds. What\'s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii). Background: valences and formulas. We can determine the formula of a compound by completing Lewis diagrams or via “valence”

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naming compounds

Naming Compounds

What\'s in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii)

background valences and formulas
Background: valences and formulas
  • We can determine the formula of a compound by completing Lewis diagrams or via “valence”
  • Valence is “the number of electrons an atom must gain, lose, or share to complete its octet”
  • For representative elements valence starts at 1 (IA), climbs to 4 (IVA) and falls back to 1 (VIIA)
  • By knowing the valence of elements you can determine the formula of compounds
  • E.g. what compound would form from C + S?

Step 1 - write valences: C4S2

Step 2 - cross down valences: C2S4

AlBr3

K2S

ZnO

Mg3N2

CCl4

CuO or Cu2O

Step 3 - simplify formula: CS2

a) Al,Br b) K,S c) Zn,O d) Mg,N e) C,Cl f) Cu,O

ionic compounds metal with 1 valence
Ionic compounds (metal with 1 valence)

Rules for naming

  • Names end in -ide. Example: sodium chloride
  • Metal (+ve ion) comes 1st (not chorine sodide)
  • Use the group valence for nonmetals
  • Do not capitalize unless starting a sentence

Give formulae & name: Ca + I, O + Mg, Na + S

= Ca2I1 = CaI2 = calcium iodide

= Mg2O2 = MgO = magnesium oxide

= Na1S2 = Na2S = sodium sulfide

multiple valence iupac naming
Multiple valence: IUPAC naming
  • Name ends in -ide, positive/metal comes first
  • The valence of the metal is indicated in brackets using roman numerals
  • E.g. Cu1 is copper(I), Cu2 is copper(II)
  • Numbers refer to valences not to #s of atoms
  • Try: Cu2+Cl, Zn2 + Cl, Co2+Cl, Hg+S (do both)

Cu2+Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = copper(II) chloride

Zn2+Cl = Zn2Cl1 = ZnCl2 = zinc chloride

Co2+Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobalt(II) chloride

Hg+S = Hg1S2 = Hg2S = mercury(I) sulfide

Hg+S = Hg2S2 = HgS = mercury(II) sulfide

compounds containing polyatomic ions

So far we have given valences to single atoms

  • Li + O
Compounds containing polyatomic ions

Li1O2 Li2O

  • Groups of atoms can also have valences
  • “Polyatomic ions” are groups of atoms that interact as a single unit. For valence see p95.
  • E.g.OH1,(SO4)2. Ba3(PO4)2 =

barium phosphate

  • Naming compounds with polyatomic ions is similar to naming other ionic compounds
  • Youshouldnotethatcompoundswithpolyatomic ions have names ending in -ate or -ite not -ide
  • Note that most are negative, except ammonium
  • Name: Ca(OH)2, CuSO4, NH4NO3, Co2(CO3)3
compounds containing polyatomic ions1
Compounds containing polyatomic ions

Ca(OH)2

CuSO4

NH4NO3

Co2(CO3)3

- calcium hydroxide

- copper(II) sulfate

- ammonium nitrate

- cobalt(III) carbonate

naming covalent compounds
Naming covalent compounds
  • prefixrefersto#ofatoms-notvalence
  • N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide
  • Exception:dropmonoforfirstelement
  • CO2 = carbon dioxide
  • The first vowel is often dropped to avoid the combination of “ao” or “oo”.
  • CO=carbonmonoxide(monooxide)
  • -ide ending, each element has “prefix”

P4O10= tetraphosphorus decoxide

SO2= sulfur dioxide (doxide)

  • Name: CCl4, P2O3,IF7
write and name the following covalent compounds iupac
Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC)

carbon tetrachloride

diphosporus trioxide

iodine heptafluoride

CCl4

P2O3

IF7

For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com

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