Chapter 4: Crude distillation. The crude stills are the ﬁrst major processing units in the reﬁnery .
The vacuum still is employed to separate the heavier portion of the crude oil into fractions because the high temperatures necessary to vaporize the topped crude at atmospheric pressure cause thermal cracking to occur, with the resulting loss to dry gas, discoloration of the product, and equipment fouling due to coke formation.
DESALTING CRUDE OILS
If the salt content of the crude oil is greater than 10 lb/1000 bbl (expressed as NaCl), the crude requires desalting to minimize fouling and corrosion caused by salt deposition on heat transfer surfaces and acids formed by decomposition of the chloride salts .
Two-stage desalting is used if the crude oil salt content is more than 20 lb/1000 bbl and, in the cases where residua are catalytically processed, there are some crudes for which three-stage desalting is used.
Desalting is carried out by mixing the crude oil with from 3 to 10 vol% water at temperatures from 200 to 300°F (90 to 150°C). Both the ratio of the water to oil and the temperature of operation are functions of the density of the oil.
ATMOSPHERIC TOPPING UNIT