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Systems Analysis. Requirements determination Requirements structuring Alternative generation & selection. Performing Requirements Determination . Gather information on what system should do from many sources Users Reports Forms Procedures. Performing Requirements Determination .

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systems analysis
Systems Analysis
  • Requirements determination
  • Requirements structuring
  • Alternative generation & selection
performing requirements determination
Performing Requirements Determination
  • Gather information on what system should do from many sources
    • Users
    • Reports
    • Forms
    • Procedures
performing requirements determination3
Performing Requirements Determination
  • Characteristics for gathering requirements
    • Impertinence
      • Question everything
    • Impartiality
      • Find the best organizational solution
    • Relaxation of constraints
      • Assume anything is possible
    • Attention to detail
      • Every fact must fit in with every other fact
    • Reframing
      • View the organization in new ways
deliverables and outcomes
Deliverables and Outcomes
  • Types of deliverables:
    • Information collected from users
    • Existing documents and files
    • Computer-based information
    • Understanding of organizational components
      • Business objective
      • Information needs
      • Rules of data processing
      • Key events
methods for determining requirements
Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Traditional
  • Modern
  • Radical
traditional methods for determining requirements
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Individual interviews
    • Discover issues with the current system and needs for the future
  • Questionnaires
    • Discover issues with the current system and needs for the future
  • Observation of workers
    • See how data are handled and what information people need to do their jobs
  • Document Analysis
    • Study business policies and rules
  • Gather facts, opinions and speculations
  • Observe body language and emotions
  • Guidelines
      • Plan
        • Checklist
        • Appointment
      • Be neutral
      • Listen
      • Seek a diverse view
  • More cost-effective than interviews
  • Choosing respondents
      • Should be representative of all users
      • Types of samples
        • Convenient
        • Random sample
        • Purposeful sample
        • Stratified sample
  • Design
      • Mostly closed-ended questions
      • Can be administered over the phone or in person
      • Can be paper or electronic
direct observation
Direct Observation
  • Serves as a good method to supplement interviews
  • Often difficult to obtain unbiased data
      • People often work differently when being observed
      • Can observe only a limited amount of time, people and sites
analyzing documents
Analyzing Documents
  • Types of information to be discovered:
    • Problems with existing system
    • Opportunity to meet new need
    • Organizational direction
    • Names of key individuals
    • Values of organization
    • Special information processing circumstances
    • Rules for processing data
modern methods for determining requirements
Modern Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
    • Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts
    • Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key people
    • Conducted off-site
  • Prototyping
    • Repetitive process
    • Rudimentary version of system is built
    • Replaces or augments SDLC
    • Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system
joint application design jad
Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Participants
    • Session Leader (Facilitator)
    • Users & Managers
    • Sponsor
    • Systems Analysts & IS Staff
    • Scribe
  • End Result
    • Documentation detailing existing system
    • Features of proposed system
  • Quickly converts requirements to working version of system
  • Once the user sees requirements converted to system, will ask for modifications or will generate additional requests
  • Most useful when:
    • User requests are not clear
    • Few users are involved in the system
    • Designs are complex and require concrete form
    • History of communication problems between analysts and users
    • Tools are readily available to build prototype
  • Drawbacks
    • Tendency to avoid formal documentation
    • Difficult to adapt to more general user audience
    • Sharing data with other systems is often not considered
    • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed
radical methods for determining requirements
Radical Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Business Process Reengineering
    • Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services
analysis strategies
Analysis Strategies
  • Business Process Automation
  • Business Process Improvement
  • Business Process Re-engineering
bpr goals
BPR Goals
  • Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organization
  • Eliminate unnecessary steps
  • Combine steps
  • Become more responsive to future change
business process reengineering
Business Process Reengineering
  • Identification of processes to reengineer
    • Identify key business processes
      • Set of activities designed to produce specific output for a particular customer or market
      • Focused on customers and outcome
      • Same techniques are used as were used for requirements determination
    • Identify specific activities that can be improved through BPR
business process reengineering22
Business Process Reengineering
  • To identify activities that can be improved through BPR ask:
    • How important is the activity to delivering an outcome?
    • How feasible is changing the activity?
    • How dysfunctional is the activity?
results of requirements determination
Results of Requirements Determination
  • Structured according to three views of the information system:
    • Process
      • Data flow diagrams
    • Logic
      • Structured English & Decision tables
    • Data
      • Data modeling