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Requirements Modeling. Systems Analysis. SDLC Phases. Phase 2: Systems Analysis Objectives Develop a logical model of the proposed system Learn about requirements modeling, data and process modeling, and object modeling Consider the transition from logical to physical design. Chapter 3.

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sdlc phases
SDLC Phases

Phase 2: Systems Analysis

Objectives

  • Develop a logical model of the proposed system
  • Learn about requirements modeling, data and process modeling, and object modeling
  • Consider the transition from logical to physical design

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

chapter 3
Chapter 3

Requirements Modeling

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain systems analysis phase activities and the end product of the systems analysis phase
  • Describe joint application development (JAD)

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

objectives5
Objectives
  • Explain how functional decomposition diagrams (FDD) are used during systems development
  • List and describe system requirements, including outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls
  • Explain the importance of scalability in system design

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

objectives6
Objectives
  • Define total cost ownership (TCO) and explain the concept
  • Describe how to conduct a successful interview

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

objectives7
Objectives
  • Explain when and how to use fact-finding techniques, including interviews, documentation review, observation, questionnaires, sampling, and research
  • Develop effective documentation methods to use during systems development

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

introduction
Overview of systems analysis phase

Fact-finding techniques

Interviewing

Documentation review

Observation

Surveys and Questionnaires

Sampling

Research

Methods used to record results

Introduction

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems analysis phase overview
Systems AnalysisPhase Overview
  • Systems analysis phase tasks
    • Requirements Modeling
    • Data and Process Modeling
    • Object Modeling
    • Transition to Systems Design
  • Two steps in the requirement modeling phase
    • Requirements determination (fact-finding)
    • Requirements analysis

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems analysis phase overview10
Systems AnalysisPhase Overview

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems development methods
Systems Development Methods
  • Joint Application Development (JAD)
    • JAD team approach
    • JAD Participants and Roles
      • JAD project leader
      • Top management
      • Managers
      • Users
      • IT staff members
      • Recorder

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems development methods12
Systems Development Methods
  • Joint Application Development (JAD)
    • JAD Agenda
      • Introduce team members and discuss objectives
      • Explain reason for project
      • Present outline of issues to be investigated
      • Open discussion to identify specific issues
      • Discuss system requirements
      • Develop models

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems development methods13
Systems Development Methods
  • Joint Application Development (JAD)
    • JAD Agenda (continued)
      • Present issues to be addressed
      • Review results
      • Decide on main issues
      • Document all topics
      • Recap JAD session
      • Prepare report for all JAD members

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

modeling tools and techniques
Modeling Tools and Techniques
  • Functional Decomposition Diagrams
    • A functional decomposition diagram (FDD) is a top-down representation of business functions and processes

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

modeling tools and techniques15
Modeling Tools and Techniques

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

systems requirements checklist
Systems Requirements Checklist
  • Characteristics or features that must be included to satisfy business requirements
    • Outputs
    • Inputs
    • Processes
    • Performance
    • Controls

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

scalability and total cost of ownership
Scalability and Total Cost of Ownership
  • Scalability
    • The ability to adjust system capacity as business requirements change
  • Total Cost of Ownership
    • The sum of the direct costs and indirect expenses
    • Systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses: a system that seems inexpensive initially might turn out to be the most expensive

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

fact finding
Fact-Finding
  • Overview
    • Software helps you gather and analyze facts; however, it cannot perform fact-finding for you
    • First step to fact-finding is identifying the information you need
    • Create a fact-finding plan

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

fact finding19
Fact-Finding
  • Who, What, When, Where, and How?
    • Who performs the procedures within the system?
    • What is being done?
    • Where are operations being performed?
    • When is a procedure performed?
    • How is a procedure performed?
  • Another important question
    • Why?

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

fact finding20
Fact-Finding

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

fact finding techniques
Fact-Finding Techniques
  • Interviews
  • Document review
  • Observation
  • Surveys and questionnaires
  • Sampling
  • Research

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

interviews
Interviews
  • Determine the people to interview
  • Establish objectives for the interview
  • Develop interview questions
  • Prepare for the interview
  • Conduct the interview
  • Document the interview
  • Evaluate the interview

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

document review
Document Review
  • Document review
    • Review existing system documentation
    • Obtain copies of actual forms and documents
    • Review blank copies of forms
    • Review samples of completed forms
    • Review software documentation

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

observation
Observation
  • Observation
    • Ask questions about present system operation
    • Observe all steps in the processing cycle
    • Examine each form, record, and report
    • Consider each person working with the system
    • Talk to people who receive current reports
    • Consider the Hawthorne Effect

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

questionnaires and surveys
Questionnaires and Surveys
  • Questionnaires and surveys
    • Brief and user-friendly
    • Clear instructions
    • Questions in logical order
    • Simple wording to avoid misunderstanding
    • Avoid leading questions
    • Open-ending questions are difficult to tabulate
    • Limit questions raising concern/negative issues
    • Section for general comments
    • Test the questionnaire in advance

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

sampling
Sampling
  • Sampling
    • Collect examples of actual documents
    • Sampling techniques
      • Systematic sample
      • Stratified sample
      • Random sample
    • Main objective is to ensure representation of the overall population accurately
    • Sampling should be considered for interviewing or questionnaires

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

other fact finding techniques
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
  • Research
    • Journals, periodicals, books
    • Internet sites
      • Hardware and software vendors
      • Independent firms that provide information
      • Newsgroups
    • Professional meetings, seminars, discussions
    • Site visits to observe a system in use

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

other fact finding techniques28
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
  • Interviews vs. questionnaires
    • Interview
      • Need information from only a few people
      • More familiar and personal
      • Can be costly and time-consuming
    • Questionnaire
      • Many people able to provide input
      • People may offer more candid responses
      • If not designed well, may be viewed as intrusive

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

documentation
Documentation
  • The need for recording the facts
    • Keeping accurate records is essential
    • Basic rule: write it down
    • Guidelines for good documentation
      • Record information as soon as possible
      • Use the simplest recording method
      • Ensure that your work is understandable
      • Organize your documentation material
    • Consider a narrative list with simple statements

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

recording the facts
Recording the Facts
  • Software tools
    • CASE tools
    • Word processing
    • Spreadsheets
    • Database
    • Presentation graphics
    • Personal information managers

Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition

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