Neuroscience
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Neuroscience. Chapter 2. I. Parts of the Brain. The Lobes – divide the brain into 4 major sections by fissures Frontal Lobe – area of the brain associated with higher mental abilities, movement, personality and the sense of smell

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Neuroscience

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience

Chapter 2


I parts of the brain

I. Parts of the Brain

  • The Lobes – divide the brain into 4 major sections by fissures

    • Frontal Lobe – area of the brain associated with higher mental abilities, movement, personality and the sense of smell

      • Contains the Motor Strip – portion of the brain that controls body movement – can be stimulated through electrical impulse

        • Importance to the body denotes designation of space in the MS

      • Frontal Association Area

        • Interprets & evaluates your environment – what is going on, what to feel, makes sense of things going on around you

        • Size reflects intelligence

        • Damage to this portion can create serious problems with a persons personality (inappropriate emotions, socially unacceptable behavior, fewer inhibitions, failure to make long-term plans, easily distracted, difficulty understanding a string of facts or events)


The lobes cont

The Lobes Cont.

  • Parietal Lobe – Portion of the brain where body sensations register (touch, temperature, pressure etc)

    • Contains the Sensory Strip – provides and registers sensation

  • Occipital Lobes – responsible for processing and interpreting visual information

    • When damaged it effects what and how well a person can see

  • Temporal Lobe – contains centers for hearing and some language functions


B the hemispheres

B. The Hemispheres

  • Hemispheres – The sides of the brain divided by a large lengthwise fissure, both hemispheres work together on most tasks

  • Corpus Callosum– connects and allows for communication between the right and left hemisphere

    • When this is cut most communication between the 2 halves is cut off

  • Dominance – this is the side of the brain that is preferred over the other

    • The hemisphere that is dominant controls most actions and fine motor skills

    • If you are left handed you are right brain dominant etc


Hemispheres cont

Hemispheres cont.

  • Left Hemisphere Tasks – local view

    • Handles verbal and speech material, like encoding and syntax some logic and writing, superior at judging time, math, rhythm & coordinating complex movements like those associated with speech

    • Mainly involved in analysis and processing information sequentially

  • Right Hemisphere Tasks – global view

    • Can produce only basic speech and numbers

    • Deals with objects in space, recognizing patterns, faces, and melodies, putting together a puzzle and drawing a picture, some mathematical reasoning

    • Helps express emotions and detect emotions of others

    • Chances are these people will be better at nonverbal activities, specializes in imagery

    • Processes material simultaneously and holistically


C the cerebrum and the cerebral cortex

C. The Cerebrum and the Cerebral Cortex

  • The outermost layer of the brain – the gray matter

  • Includes hemispheres, lobes and the frontal association area

  • Controls very high-level thought and takes up 2/3rds of the brains nerve cells (100 billion)

  • Responsible for voluntary movements, sensations, learning, remembering, consciousness etc.

  • Corticalization – the increase in the size and wrinkles of the brain

    • small correlation between brain size and intelligence (not between humans & humans but humans and other animals)


D the lower brain

D. The Lower Brain

  • The Lower Brain - communicates back and forth with the cerebral cortex for non-automatic human responses

  • The Thalamus – acts as a sensory relay station sending and receiving information to other parts of the brain (vision, hearing, taste & touch) damage can cause blindness, deafness, etc (not smell)

  • The Cerebellum – primarily regulates posture, muscle tone & muscular coordination

    • Stores memories related to skills and habits (class schedules, driving directions)

    • Damage – walking, running, playing catch are impossible, area of the brain where degenerative diseases effect coordinated motor function


The lower brain cont

The Lower Brain Cont.

  • The Hypothalamus – control center for emotions and basic motives - helps control rage, pleasure, hunger and sexual desire, temperature control

  • Reticular Activating System – works to catch nerve impulses from the brain to the body and back

    • Affects your alertness, sorts & prioritizes nerve impulses, controls reflexes involved in breathing, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting, and affects muscle tone, posture, and movement of the head, eyes, face & body

    • Bombards the cortex with stimulation keeping it active and alert


Ii brain communication

II. Brain Communication

A. Neuron – the nerve cell of the brain

  • Dendrite – short fibers that act as receptors, receiving messages from other nerve cells

  • Axon – longer fiber that carries messages from the cell to other neurons

    B. Synapse – space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron

  • Vesicle – bubble like containers that hold chemical molecules called neurotransmitters


Brain communication cont

Brain Communication cont.

C. Neurotransmitters – send messages over the synapse to the dendrite receptor

  • Acetylcholine – type of neurotransmitter that affects body movements (food poisoning)

  • Dopamine – neurotransmitters involved in the control of body movements (Parkinson’s disease)

  • Endorphins – neurotransmitter that relieves pain and increases your sense of well-being (ecstasy & other drugs)


C the spinal cord

C. The Spinal Cord

  • The neurons in the spinal cord are short, direct and powerful.

  • have few synapses – shorter time for information to be received and an action to occur

  • reflex – activation of the muscle(s) before the message is received by the brain (dropping a baby)


Iii the endocrine system

III. The Endocrine System

  • The Pituitary Gland – small bean shaped gland attached to and controlled by the hypothalamus

    • Responsible for sending messages to other glands to activate them

    • Responsible for determining the height of the person

    • The gland creates a growth hormone which appears in the body’s system sporadically resulting in on and off growth spurts

    • Can be effected by the environment and diet of the individual

  • Thyroid Gland – located in the neck this gland controls a persons metabolism

    • This affects the rate a which a person’s body operate, inactive thyroid = a sluggish person, a overactive thyroid = jumpy and hyper person


Iii the endocrine system cont

III. The Endocrine System cont.

  • The Adrenal Gland – located on the right and left side of the body above the kidneys

    • Responsible for putting adrenaline in to the bloodstream

      • Affects us by increasing breathing, blood pressure, muscles tension & energy level

    • Will also release a chemical that allows for the faster clotting of blood

    • This happens during testing or any other high anxiety time (fight or flight reaction)

      • TIP: to decrease test anxiety force yourself to take slow deep breaths, this will stimulate brain activity instead of shutting it down to prepare for an emergency


Iii the endocrine system cont1

III. The Endocrine System cont.

  • The Gonads – sex glands located in the testis in males and the ovaries in females

    • Androgen – the male hormone that stimulates the growth of hair, the deepening of the voice and the production of sperm

      • Starts the sex drive of both males and females

      • Sex drive is taken over by the cortex which allows us to associate other emotions like love and caring with the act of intercourse

    • Estrogen – the female hormone that causes the production of eggs the enlargement of the mammary glands and the menstrual cycle to begin

      • Both of these hormones are produced in the gonads and released during the middle teenage years


Iv the nervous system

IV. The Nervous System

  • The nervous system is our body’s electro-chemical information network (interstate highway)

  • Central Nervous system – includes our brain and spinal cord

  • Peripheral Nervous system – links the CNS with the body’s sense receptors, muscles and glands.

    • Axons – are grouped & bundled as cables that shoot messages back and forth along our nerves


  • Types of neurons

    Types of Neurons

    • Sensory neurons - gather and send info to the CNS

    • Motor Neurons – sends messages from the CNS to the body’s tissues and muscles

    • Inter Neurons – communicate between the sensory neurons and motor neurons


    Peripheral nervous system

    Peripheral Nervous System

    • Somatic Nervous System -

    • Autonomatic Nervous System –

      • Sympathetic –

      • Parasympathetic -


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