Developing Adult Learning Theories

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Developing Learning Theories. Is the development of theories a linear process?. Developing Learning Theories. Or is development of theories more of a reflection on the learning process itself?. Transformation Learning Theory. Adult Learning is experiential and transforms the learner.. Transformation Learning Theory.

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Developing Adult Learning Theories

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1. Developing Adult Learning Theories Connections We will explore the development of several key learning theories and their connections.We will explore the development of several key learning theories and their connections.

2. Developing Learning Theories Is the development of theories a linear process? Is learning a linear process? With A followed by B and only B which is in turn followed by C and only C? Or is learning a cyclic process where what is learned enables more learning which in turn modifies that which was learned round and round spiraling toward understanding.Is learning a linear process? With A followed by B and only B which is in turn followed by C and only C? Or is learning a cyclic process where what is learned enables more learning which in turn modifies that which was learned round and round spiraling toward understanding.

3. Developing Learning Theories Or is development of theories more of a reflection on the learning process itself? It’s only recently that study has been done on the process of learning in adults. Just as in the past psychologists, prior to believed the thought process in children was the same regardless of age, it was believed that learning was the same regardless of the age. It’s only recently that study has been done on the process of learning in adults. Just as in the past psychologists, prior to believed the thought process in children was the same regardless of age, it was believed that learning was the same regardless of the age.

4. Transformation Learning Theory Adult Learning is experiential and transforms the learner. Transformation learning theory is based on study of adults. Transformation theory attempts to provide a comprehensive, idealized, universal model of the adult learning process. Critical reflection and rational discourse are key to the perspective transformation which is learning. Learning is the process whereby a individual transforms from one who can’t perform or does not understand to one who can perform or has understanding. Transformation learning theory is based on study of adults. Transformation theory attempts to provide a comprehensive, idealized, universal model of the adult learning process. Critical reflection and rational discourse are key to the perspective transformation which is learning. Learning is the process whereby a individual transforms from one who can’t perform or does not understand to one who can perform or has understanding.

5. Transformation Learning Theory The learning process is seen as cumulative transformations in related meaning schemes Critical reflection and rational discourse are key to the perspective transformation which is learning. There are two paths of learning described in the transformation learning theory. One type of learning is cumulative, a set of progressive transformations in related meaning schemes. The other type of learning is epochal, a sudden reversal of perception suchCritical reflection and rational discourse are key to the perspective transformation which is learning. There are two paths of learning described in the transformation learning theory. One type of learning is cumulative, a set of progressive transformations in related meaning schemes. The other type of learning is epochal, a sudden reversal of perception such

6. Transformation Learning Theory Adult Learning can be epochal, a sudden transformation of the learner’s perception The other type of learning is epochal, a sudden reversal of perception. What do you see in the graphic? Is it a vase or is it two faces? Can you change what you “see” by thinking about one or the other? Transformative learning can be like that.The other type of learning is epochal, a sudden reversal of perception. What do you see in the graphic? Is it a vase or is it two faces? Can you change what you “see” by thinking about one or the other? Transformative learning can be like that.

7. Three major schools of Learning Theory Behaviorist Cognitivist Constructivist Prior to the development of Transformative Learning theory there were three general schools of learning theory based on the study of childhood learning.Prior to the development of Transformative Learning theory there were three general schools of learning theory based on the study of childhood learning.

8. Transformation Learning Theory Focus on adult learners Four Major schools of Transformation learning theory Conscientization (Freire) Cognitive/Developmental (Mezirow) Motivational (Daloz) Holistic (Boyd) The four major schools of transformation learning theory have their roots in preceding learning theories. Conscientization and Holistic from Constructionist, Cognitive/Development from Cognitivist and motivational out of Behaviorist. But no school adheres solely to any one of the general learning theoriesThe four major schools of transformation learning theory have their roots in preceding learning theories. Conscientization and Holistic from Constructionist, Cognitive/Development from Cognitivist and motivational out of Behaviorist. But no school adheres solely to any one of the general learning theories

9. Transformation Learning Theory Conscientization Learning as a form of social reform. Education should be a process of action and reflection Theorist; Paulo Freire Example Highlander School in New Market Tennesse. http://www.hrec.org/ Consciousness raising is and learning are pretty much the same thing in this school of transformative learning theoryConsciousness raising is and learning are pretty much the same thing in this school of transformative learning theory

10. Constructivist Learning Theory Key Theorist Vygotsky The learner constructs skills and knowledge. No one is an island and learning is a social processThe learner constructs skills and knowledge. No one is an island and learning is a social process

11. Transformation Learning Theory Based on cognitive and developmental psychology Key theorist Jack Mezirow “Learning is a social process that takes place within the individual learner” (Mezirow, Forum 48,1997) There are characteristics of adult learning that are significantly different from childhood learning. Adults are independent, they have accumulated significant schema and have established world-views, perspectives and meaning structures within which new information must be assessed. (Mezirow, Forum 48,1997) There are characteristics of adult learning that are significantly different from childhood learning. Adults are independent, they have accumulated significant schema and have established world-views, perspectives and meaning structures within which new information must be assessed.

12. Cognitivist Learning Theory Key theorists Piaget, Gagne, Bruner, Ausebel, Learning is a change in memory, stored knowledge Focus is on internal aspects, associating previous knowledge with new information, organizing knowledge and reinforcing memories Before the transformation learning theory there was the Cognitivist learning theory. In later development of this theory Gagne studied adults. But the initial theory was based on the study of children.Before the transformation learning theory there was the Cognitivist learning theory. In later development of this theory Gagne studied adults. But the initial theory was based on the study of children.

13. Cognitivist Learning Theory Learning is an internal process I-P-O Input- [Attention ]selectively receiving information Process- [Encoding]Translating information into a meaningful form which can be remembered Output [Retrieval] identifying and recalling information for a particular purpose Cognitivist learning theory regards the internal process key to understanding how learning occurs.Cognitivist learning theory regards the internal process key to understanding how learning occurs.

14. Cognitivist Learning Theory But before the Cognitivists there was Freud and DeCartes Psychiatrist Freud didn’t necessarily study how one learns, but the internal processes of the mind which he did study and discuss caused others to have ideas. DeCarte was an existentialist but in the process of trying to prove existence he provided some significant schema for learning theorists. What do you know about DeCartes?Psychiatrist Freud didn’t necessarily study how one learns, but the internal processes of the mind which he did study and discuss caused others to have ideas. DeCarte was an existentialist but in the process of trying to prove existence he provided some significant schema for learning theorists. What do you know about DeCartes?

15. Transformation Learning Theory Motivational Focuses on the motivations and developmental aspects of adult lives Key theorist Laurent Daloz The focus of this approach is on the developmental aspects of adult lives and is more oriented toward personal change due to external forces rather than social influences.The focus of this approach is on the developmental aspects of adult lives and is more oriented toward personal change due to external forces rather than social influences.

16. Behaviorist Learning Theory E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner Learning is a change in behavior Focus is on external aspects Behaviorism is still a strong influence in the school systems because it produces external, verifiable results. Behaviorism is still a strong influence in the school systems because it produces external, verifiable results.

17. Behaviorist Learning Theory Learning is as simple as A-B-C Antecedent (stimulus) Behavior (action) Consequence (re-enforcer) Touching a hot iron one learns very quickly not to do that again because it hurts. Behaviorst learning theory explains lower level learning but does not address higher order learning. Touching a hot iron one learns very quickly not to do that again because it hurts. Behaviorst learning theory explains lower level learning but does not address higher order learning.

18. Behaviorist Learning Theory But before Thorndike and Skinner was Pavlov and his dogs Lower order learning, such as Pavlov uncovered is based on Stimulus and response. Conditioning (learning) a response by associating an unrelated consequence with a stimulus. Lower order learning, such as Pavlov uncovered is based on Stimulus and response. Conditioning (learning) a response by associating an unrelated consequence with a stimulus.

19. Transformation Learning Theory Holistic Focus on the emotional and spiritual dimensions of learning Key theorist Robert Boyd This school shares the developmental perspective of the other schools but is more concerned with the spiritual and and emotional aspects of learning.This school shares the developmental perspective of the other schools but is more concerned with the spiritual and and emotional aspects of learning.

20. Constructivist Theory Learning is a change in meaning constructed from experience Focus is on internal aspects, building understanding Just as the Conscientizationist, the Holistic Transformation learning theory came out of the Constructivist learning theory…Just as the Conscientizationist, the Holistic Transformation learning theory came out of the Constructivist learning theory…

21. Constructivist Learning Theory Before Vygotsky there was Freud, DeCartes, as well as Marx, St. Augustine, Aristotle, Plato, and far to many others to give proper credit here. (Contructivist learning theory) Which in turn, like the other general theories came out of theories in psychology, sociology, spiritualism, philosophy.(Contructivist learning theory) Which in turn, like the other general theories came out of theories in psychology, sociology, spiritualism, philosophy.

22. Developing Learning Theories So what fed and shaped the thinking of Freire, Mezirow, Daloz and Boyd that they came up with their theories of Tranformation learning? We find kind of a cascade effect when we ask this question. Or maybe it’s more like an avalanche? We find kind of a cascade effect when we ask this question. Or maybe it’s more like an avalanche?

23. Developing Learning Theory So who influenced whom?So who influenced whom?

24. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about What was going on in the world while these theorists were coming up with their theories? How did world events influence the resultant theory? Possible influences; Revolutions, French, American, Industrial. Wars, social movements Economy; (depression?)Possible influences; Revolutions, French, American, Industrial. Wars, social movements Economy; (depression?)

25. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about How do the theories impact each other?

26. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about Is theory development a linear process? So, is learning a linear process? How is theory development similar to the learning process? How is theory development different from the learning process?So, is learning a linear process? How is theory development similar to the learning process? How is theory development different from the learning process?

27. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about Why are are none of the theorists black, asian or female? Hint, look up Maslow’s Heirarchy of needs Now that mere survival is no longer the paramount concern of minorities we will see an emergence of theories based on different perspectives. Now that mere survival is no longer the paramount concern of minorities we will see an emergence of theories based on different perspectives.

28. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about Two questions were implied at the beginning of this presentation- How are learning theories connected? Is the process of developing theories similar to the process of learning? Were the two questions were implied at the beginning of this presentation answered? Should they have been? No, not fully It is hoped this will act as a teaser to stimulate further study. Were the two questions were implied at the beginning of this presentation answered? Should they have been? No, not fully It is hoped this will act as a teaser to stimulate further study.

29. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about What I learned from making this presentation- more learning theory facts that all learning is experiential how to better construct a slide show that there is a lot more stuff I want to learn In the process of researching and composing this project has been a learning experience. The value of the assignment of a final project as a means of learning is supported by the Transformation Learning as well as cognitivist and constructivist theories. The questions inserted through out the presentation are meant to stimulate independent associations and curiosity in the hope of stimulating further learning.In the process of researching and composing this project has been a learning experience. The value of the assignment of a final project as a means of learning is supported by the Transformation Learning as well as cognitivist and constructivist theories. The questions inserted through out the presentation are meant to stimulate independent associations and curiosity in the hope of stimulating further learning.

30. Developing Learning Theories Things to think about Did you learn anything from this presentation? If so, how? Now, if I was following the Behaviorist model there would now be a test to determine how much you learned. However, my belief is that the importance of learning is internal as a transformation to a better understanding through newly augmented schema. So there, aren’t you glad there’ll be no test? Now, if I was following the Behaviorist model there would now be a test to determine how much you learned. However, my belief is that the importance of learning is internal as a transformation to a better understanding through newly augmented schema. So there, aren’t you glad there’ll be no test?

31. Resources: Busse, C. (2002) Transformative Learning (unpublished) Driscoll, M.P. (2000) Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd ed., Allyn and Bacon Pub. Knowles, M. (1998) Modern Practice of Adult eduction: from Pedagogy to Andragogy, Cambridge adult press Newly et. al, (1996) Instructional Technology for teaching and Learning, Prentice Hall Pub. Mezirow, J. (1994) Understanding Transformation theory, Adult education quarterly v.44 no. 4 Special thanks to google.com without which this presentation would have been imageless.Special thanks to google.com without which this presentation would have been imageless.

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