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Digestive System Notes Function: Breaks down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body. Click Me. http://www.mennellmedia.co.uk/VideoProjects/ToiletTales/ToiletTales.html. Major Organs: Mouth—where digestion begins

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Digestive System Notes

Function:

  • Breaks down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body

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Major Organs:

  • Mouth—where digestion begins

  • Chewing is a mechanical process that breaks food into smaller particles

  • Saliva mixes with food and amylase (enzyme) breaks down carbohydrates into simpler molecules



  • Esophagus—passage to stomach

  • Peristalsis—muscular contractions to move food through esophagus

  • Epiglottis—small flap that protects food from going down trachea; guides food into esophagus

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  • Food is chemically digested and absorbed into blood by villi—small fingerlike projections that line the small intestine


  • Waste is stored in the rectum until expelled from the body through the anus


Accessory Organs: large intestine

  • Pancreas—produces insulin to regulate blood sugar levels and produces enzymes to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats

  • Liver—detoxifies chemicals

  • -produces bile—bile breaks down fats

  • Gall bladder—stores bile until it is needed

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Excretory (Urinary) large intestineSystem

Function:

  • To remove waste products from the blood

  • Helps maintain homeostasis by regulating water content of the blood


Major Organs: large intestine

  • Kidneys (renal = kidney)

    • Paired organs that remove cellular wastes, toxins and excess water from blood

    • Every 45 minutes kidneys filter all the blood in your body

  • Filtered blood leaves kidneys and returns to circulation

  • Sometimes excess salts or minerals in the urine crystallize and form kidney stones. When kidney stones block the ureters, they cause great pain.


  • Ureters large intestine—tubes that carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladder

  • Bladder—muscular sac where urine is stored temporarily before being excreted

  • Urethra—tube that carries urine from bladder to the outside


Structure of the Urinary (Excretory) System large intestine

Right Kidney

Left Kidney

Left Ureter

Bladder

Urethra


Endocrine System large intestine

  • Function:

  • Control, coordinate and regulate most of body’s activities by releasing hormones into the blood

  • Hormones are chemicals produced in one part of the body that affect another part of the body


Major Glands: large intestine

  • Pituitary gland

    • Master gland that controls all other endocrine glands

  • Secretes growth hormone during childhood (Tumors on pituitary glands can cause gigantism.)


? large intestine


  • Thyroid gland large intestine

    • Controls metabolic rate of all cells

  • Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life





Reproductive System development of female sex characteristics and for development of eggs

Function:

  • Formation of new individuals

  • Puberty—period of rapid growth and maturation during which reproductive system becomes fully functional


  • Ovaries

  • Paired organs that produce one mature egg per month

  • Ovulation is process of mature egg being released from ovary—usually 10-14 days after completion of menstrual cycle


  • Fallopian tubes development of female sex characteristics and for development of eggs

    • Tube through which egg travels from ovary to uterus

    • Egg can be fertilized as it travels through Fallopian tubes

  • Uterus—muscular organ where embryo develops

  • Vagina—birth canal that leads from uterus to outside of body


Male Reproductive Organs: development of female sex characteristics and for development of eggs

  • Testes—produce sperm

  • Scrotum—sac that holds the testes

  • Epididymis—where sperm mature and are stored


  • Prostate gland and seminal vesicles

    • Produce seminal fluid to help sperm survive

    • Inflamed prostate gland squeezes urethra and causes problems with urination


Vas deferens development of female sex characteristics and for development of eggs


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