10 chemical composition analysis
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บทที่ 10 การวิเคราะห์ธาตุส่วนผสมทางเคมี Chemical composition analysis PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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บทที่ 10 การวิเคราะห์ธาตุส่วนผสมทางเคมี Chemical composition analysis. 1302 423 Industrial Materials Testing Assistant Professor Dr. Sukangkana Lee. วิธีการวิเคราะห์. XRF (X - ray fluorescence) XRD (X-ray diffraction) http://www.matter.org.uk/diffraction/x-ray/x_ray_diffraction.htm

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บทที่ 10 การวิเคราะห์ธาตุส่วนผสมทางเคมี Chemical composition analysis

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10 chemical composition analysis

10 Chemical composition analysis

1302 423 Industrial Materials Testing

Assistant Professor Dr. Sukangkana Lee


10 chemical composition analysis

  • XRF (X-ray fluorescence)

  • XRD (X-ray diffraction) http://www.matter.org.uk/diffraction/x-ray/x_ray_diffraction.htm

  • Energy dispersive Spectrometer

    XRF Emission Spectrometer


10 chemical composition analysis

  • X-rays


10 chemical composition analysis

e-

N

K

L

M


X rays

X-rays

  • X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

  • X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, comparable to spacing between atoms/ions/molecules in crystal

  • corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30 1015 Hz to 30 1018 Hz)

  • energies in the range 120 eV to 120 keV.

  • They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays.


1 xrf x ray fluorescence

1. XRF (X-ray fluorescence)

  • XRF analysis (Qualitative) (Quantitative)

  • 5-500 ppm


10 chemical composition analysis

  • 10-50 mm 50 mm

  • 1 gram

  • 15


10 chemical composition analysis

  • atomic number 11 (H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne and Na)

    XRF


10 chemical composition analysis

  • The process in which an x-ray is absorbed by the atom by transferring all of its energy to an innermost electron is called the "photoelectric effect."


10 chemical composition analysis

Primary x-ray beam

Ejected core electron

M L K

Electron from outer

shell fills the hole

Secondary x-ray beam

  • X-rays electron ( K) (Ejected core e-) secondaryX-ray


10 chemical composition analysis

  • core electron (Primary x-ray) (Emitted secondary x-ray)

  • XRF Titanium


10 chemical composition analysis

L

Mshell

K

Lshell

Kshell

K

N

  • L shell K shell K

  • M shell K shell K


10 chemical composition analysis

X-ray K-series spectral line wavelengths (nm) for some common target materials.[13]

^David R. Lide, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 75th edition. CRC Press. pp.10227. ISBN 0-8493-0475-X.


10 chemical composition analysis

Specimen

1

2

Secondary x-ray beam

X-ray filter

Intensity

3

Primary x-ray beam

X-ray detector

X-ray

source

Energy (wavelength)

  • x-ray

  • Secondary x-ray x-ray detector

  • X-ray detector energy wavelength KK


10 chemical composition analysis

Intensity

Energy (wavelength)

Target

X-ray detector

3

1

2

X-ray filter

Secondary

x-ray beam

Primary x-ray beam

Specimen

X-ray

source

  • x-ray target 10-4 10-5m

  • Secondary x-ray Target Specimen X-ray detector

  • X-ray detector energy wavelength KK


2 optical emission spectrometer

2. Optical Emission Spectrometer

  • X-ray X-ray

  • 30 1-2


10 chemical composition analysis

  • 800-100 V

  • ( ground state ) ( Excited state)

  • (Light Emission)


Emission of atom

Emission of atom

2.Excitation

1.Ground state

3.Emission

Supplied Energy +E

e-

e-

Initial Energy, E1

Energy, E2

Emitting a Photon (E2-E1)

(Atomic Phenomenon)


Planck s equation

Plancks equation

  • E 2

  • h planck

  • C

  • (Emission)


10 chemical composition analysis

  • Spectrometer ( silicon or Lithium) Spectrum

  • Detector


Spectrometer

Spectrometer

Detector

Computer software

Work Table

Sample

Discharge

Spectrometer

Light Emission

Chamber

(with argon flow)

Electrode


10 chemical composition analysis

Work Table

Spectrometer


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