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Ch4: Software Architecture and Design. The role of analysis and design. Software construction may be partitioned into the following phases: Req. analysis: S/w architecture: High-level/early design: Detailed design: Implementation: Testing:. The Role of Analysis and Design. Analysis:

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Ch4: Software Architecture and Design

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Ch4 software architecture and design

Ch4: Software Architecture and Design

The role of analysis and design

The role of analysis and design

  • Software construction may be partitioned into the following phases:

  • Req. analysis:

  • S/w architecture:

  • High-level/early design:

  • Detailed design:

  • Implementation:

  • Testing:

The role of analysis and design1

The Role of Analysis and Design

  • Analysis:

  • OO Analysis:

  • Design:

  • OO design:

Guidelines for designing classes

Guidelines for designing classes

Specifying “Good” Classes

  • Identifying a good class is hard work

  • A well-defined class is:

Guidelines for design of classes contd

Guidelines for design of classes (contd..)

Understanding the utility of classes

  • Three categories of software in application:

    • Domain independent (20%):

    • Domain-specific (65%):

    • Application-specific (15%):

  • Organizations must strive for domain and organization specific reuse.

Guidelines for designing classes1

Guidelines for designing classes

  • Containment vs. inheritance

    • Class D“Is-A-Kind-Of”classC:

    • Class D“Has-A”class C:

  • Choose

How and when to apply reuse, relationship among classes. Need discussion,

communication and cooperation among engineers.

History of oo design

History of OO design

  • Booch: The Booch method

    • Object-Oriented Design with Application,” Benjamin/Cummings, 1991.

  • Rumbaugh: OMT

    • “Object-Oriented Modeling and Design,” Prentice-Hall, 1991.

  • Meyer: Client/Server contract approach

    • “Object-Oriented Software Construction,” Prentice-Hall, 1988.

  • Jacobson: Use-cases and software engineering

    • “Object-Oriented Software Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach,” Addison-Wesley, 1992.

History of oo design contd

History of OO design (contd..)

  • Coleman: The Fusion method

    • “Object-Oriented Development - The Fusion Method,” Prentice-Hall, 1994.

  • Lieberherr: Adaptive OO software

    • “Adaptive OO Software: The Demeter Method with Propagation Patterns,” PWS, 1996.

  • Gamma: Design Patterns

    • “Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software,” Addison-Wesley, 1995.

  • Booch and Rumbaugh: UML Predecessor

    • “Unified Method for Object-Oriented Development,” Rational TR, 1995

The emergence of uml

The emergence of UML

  • The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the object-oriented analysis and design equivalent of Java

  • UML is a language for

    • Web address:

  • UML unifies:

    • Object-oriented analysis and design: Grady Booch approach.

    • Object-oriented modeling and design: Jim Rumbaugh

    • Object-oriented SE, A use case drive approach: Jacobson

  • A modeling language provides:

Seven goals of uml

Seven goals of UML

  • Ready-to-use, expressive visual modeling language that promotes development/exchange

  • Extensibility/specialization of core concepts

  • Independent of programming languages and development processes

  • Formal basis for understanding language

  • Encourage growth of OO tools market

  • Support higher level design concepts:

    • Collaborations, frameworks, etc.

    • Collaborations, frameworks, ptterns, etc.

  • Integrate the best practices of all OOD

Characteristics of uml

Characteristics of UML

  • Generic syntax:

  • Syntax is independent of:

  • Flexible syntax:

Uml modeling constructs diagrams

UML modeling constructs/diagrams

  • User interaction diagrams

    • Use-case diagrams

  • Static structure diagrams

    • Class diagrams

    • Object diagrams

  • Behavior diagrams

    • Statechart diagrams

    • Activity diagrams

  • Interaction diagrams

    • Sequence diagram

    • Collaboration diagram

  • Implementation diagrams

    • Component diagram

    • Deployment diagram

Class diagrams

Class diagrams

  • Class in UML:

  • Representation of classes:

  • Designer develops classes as sets of compartments that grow over time to incrementally add functionality and features

Example class diagram

Example class diagram



+ Account: Int

+ Name: String

+ Address: String

+ Balance: Float


+ AddCustomer()

+ DeleteCustomer()

+ GetBalance()


“+” indicates that the attribute/operation is public

“-” indicates that the attribute/operation is private

“#” indicates that the attribute/operation is protected

Relationships among classes

Relationships among classes

  • Inheritance

  • Association

  • Aggregation

Generalization specialization inheritance

Generalization/Specialization (Inheritance)

Checking Account and Savings

Account are special cases of

Bank Account




Generalization specialization inheritance1

Generalization/Specialization (Inheritance)


Administrative Staff and

Technical Staff are special

cases of the class Employee





Relationship among instances of objects of one class and instances of

objects among other classes. Represent using a line, label each end

With how many objects participate in the association.

1 *



Multiplicity constraints indicate how many objects participate

in the association.

May be specified as -- upper_bound….lower_bound

1, 1:1 – Only one object

*, 1:* - At least one object

* -- any number of objects between 0 and infinity

Association contd

Association (contd..)

1 1:3



Multiplicity 1:3 indicates that each

Instructor teaches at least one course

but no more than three courses.

Association contd1

Association (contd..)

* 1










Objects are composed of simpler objects.




Triangle consists of three points.

Class diagram high tech supermarket system

Class Diagram: High Tech SuperMarket System

Consider the process of updating the inventory in the high-tech supermarket system. Central to the process is an inventory order. An inventory assistant in the HTSS is responsible for managing a inventory order. In addition, each inventory assistant may be involved in managing several inventory orders. An inventory order is associated with a list of items. Each item in the list can be of three types, namely, snack item, liquor item, and canned item. Each inventory order is submitted to three wholesale stores. Each wholesale store caters to a specific set of items. For example, the Liquor Store is responsible for delivering liquor items. These three wholesale stores, are, namely, Liquor Store, Produce Store, and Snack Store. Construct a UML class diagram to model the process of inventory update in the HTSS.

Class diagram htss














Class diagram: HTSS






Uml tools

UML tools

  • Argo UML


  • Object Domain


  • Rational Rose:


  • Microsoft Visio

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