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University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDUC190 – Computers in Education. Digital Divide. Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education. Sharing your experience What kinds? – mobile phone, iPod, Wiki? Blogs (facebook, mixi..)? Skype? etc.

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Digital Divide

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Digital divide

University of the Philippines

College of Education

Educational Technology Department

EDUC190 – Computers in Education

Digital Divide

Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD

Professor of Education

Digital divide

  • Sharing your experience

    • What kinds? – mobile phone, iPod, Wiki? Blogs (facebook, mixi..)? Skype? etc.

    • For what?

    • How often?

    • individual differences?

Digital divide

Digital haves - Info rich





The Gap

Digital not haves - Info poor

ICT: information and communications technology

Digital divide

Digital haves - Info rich




Ethnic groups


Economic levels

Social status


A series of Gaps

Digital not haves - Info poor

Digital divide

  • Evolution of Digital Technologies

  • 1) Provide opportunities

  • 2) Create problems

Digital divide

Digital Technologies





Changes in Society


(Policies, Practices)

Digital divide

Why Digital Divide is

an important issue….

Digital divide

Digital Divide

a deepening of

existing forms of exclusion

Unemployed, poor,

housebound, disabled,

less educated, minorities


Finding facts

Finding Facts

Digital divide

Internet World Statistics (2009)

Digital divide at a glance itu figures

less than 3 out of every 100 Africans

1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the G8 countries

top 20 countries (Internet bandwidth) ---80% of all Internet users

30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1%

429 million Internet users in G8

444 million Internet users in non-G8

Mobile = 34% of the world’s total mobile users from G8 countries – 14% world population

Digital Divide at A Glance (ITU figures)

G8- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US

Digital divide

Cultural factors

Social factors

(gender, race..)

Digital Divide

Other factors

Economic factors

Internet users by income level of country 2003 asahi statistics p 189

High-income : 65.5%

Upper middle income : 7.8%

Lower middle income : 21.5%

Low-income : 5.6%

Internet Users by Income level of country (2003) Asahi Statistics p.189

Ucla world internet project 2004 internet users

UCLA World Internet Project (2004)- Internet Users -

Britain men 63.6; women 55.0Germany men 50.4; women 41.7Hungary men 20.3; women 15.1Italy men 41.7; women 21.5Japan men 54.7; women 46.2Korea men 67.8; women 53.8Macao men 37.8; women 28.8Singapore men 47.2; women 34.0Spain men 46.4; women 27.2Sweden men 67.7; women 64.4Taiwan men 25.1; women 23.5United States men 73.1; women 69.0

Digital divide

“…86 percent of women ages 18 to 29 were online, compared with 80 percent of men in the same age group.

“…among the older group, those age 65 and older, 34 percent of men are online, compared with 21 percent of women.”

USA, Washingtonpost Thursday, December 29, 2005

White paper on information and telecommunications in japan

White Paper on information and Telecommunications in Japan





non-alphabet writing)



Computer anxiety


Computer experience


Digital divide



Regional gap

Internet Use via Mobiles

Generation gap

- Old people


People with disabilities

Digital divide

What do these mean?

Digital divide

  • Not easy to stop/lessen gaps

If we don’t do anything about it….

Need for awareness

Need for strong policies

Need for international collaboration

Need for education

What can we do

What can we do?

Digital divide

  • World Summit on the Information Society


  • International Collaboration

  • “UNDP etc – e Vietnamese Village”

  • “Japan – Asian Broadband Project”

  • 2. NGOs/Public sectors

  • “Brazil – Tele-centers”

  • 3. National Policies

  • “Egypt – E-readiness Plan”

  • “Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity”

  • 4. Business Involvement “Sudan – SUDATEL”

  • #### Individual efforts

Digital divide

World Summit on the Information Society

  • - 8 key areas for policy suggested-

  • Access for all to HW & SW

  • Changed roles of teachers/learners

  • Promoting lifelong learning

  • Quality assurance

  • Enhanced citizenship

  • Brokering services and agencies

  • Support, encourage & direct research

  • Change in role of policy-maker in education

Digital divide

Free discussion - What do you think?

“Teachers should be trained and retrained to effectively and efficiently use ICT in teaching and management!”

– from digital divide/opportunities perspective

  • Singapore and Korea

  • Training, retraining every 3 yrs

  • 30% of teaching hours/curriculum

  • - ICT use in teacher evaluation

  • - All classrooms connected to the high-speed Internet

Digital divide

Digital Opportunities

ICT, helping to overcome

some forms of exclusion

Distance learning to remote areas

Village tele-centers with ICT

Maori education in NZ

Digital divide

Digital technologies

Lifelong society

Digital divide



prepare for changing world


enable to participate in this world


continue to update

Digital divide

Do you see any

Digital Divide in Education??

Digital divide

  • Digital Divide in Education

  • Digital divide in investment (input)

  • Digital divide in ICT use (process)

  • Digital divide in people (output)

1 digital divide in investment

1. Digital Dividein Investment

Input Factors

Hardware, Materials (software),


Integration of ICT in curriculum; Supports;


Computer equipment in schools source japan mext 200 5

Computer equipment in schoolsSource: Japan, MEXT (2005)

Digital divide

“why is it important

to understand and lesson digital divide

in investment

in formal education?”

Digital divide

“Schools or educational institutions can play

a compensatory

equalising role.”

2 digital divide in ict use

2. Digital Dividein ICT Use

Process Factors

Different approaches to ICT use

- Used for advanced applications

and thinking?

- Used for basic skill training?

- Used for computer games?

University faculty s use of ict in teaching source japan nime 2003



Administrative communication by email



Q & A by email



Presentation tools


Students report submission by email



Posting instructional materials on web


used always


used often


Posting lecture video on web







University Faculty’s Use of ICT in TeachingSource: Japan, NIME (2003)

Digital divide

As a presentation tool?As a simple communication tool?As an administrative tool?As a problem-solving tool?As a creation tool?As a research tool?

Digital divide

Gaps between teachers and students,among teachers and among studentsin terms ofSkills & KnowledgeWays of using ICTAttitude

3 digital divide in different groups

3. Digital Dividein Different Groups

Human (Outcome) Factors

Digital literacy?

- ICT skills / knowledge

- confidence

- competencies

“What is more important is to empower people……..” (Week2-reading#1 “Learning to bridge the DD - p.56)”

Ict skills university perception source nime 2003

ICT Skills (University, Perception)Source: NIME (2003)

“I do not have adequate

ICT skills and knowledge”

- More faculty than students

- More older people than younger ones

- More people in humanities and social sciencesthan those in natural sciences and engineering

Digital divide

  • Some policies (Education)

  • USA – “E-rate program”

  • EU- “eLearning Action Plan”

  • Japan - “Millennium Project”,

  • “E-Japan Strategy”

  • 4. Romania – “Multipurpose Community

  • Telecenters”

Digital divide

Digital divide in informal learning

(more learning happens outside schools)

Home differences

Differences at work

Differences in communities

Digital divide

  • Digital Divide

  • Understanding the issue

  • from various perspectives

  • As a teacher in the future

  • As a university student

  • “To make ICT used and useful”

Digital divide

Group Activity


Digital divide


Approaches in using media

for instruction

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