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University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDUC190 – Computers in Education. Digital Divide. Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education. Sharing your experience What kinds? – mobile phone, iPod, Wiki? Blogs (facebook, mixi..)? Skype? etc.

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Digital divide

University of the Philippines

College of Education

Educational Technology Department

EDUC190 – Computers in Education

Digital Divide

Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD

Professor of Education


Digital divide

  • Sharing your experience

    • What kinds? – mobile phone, iPod, Wiki? Blogs (facebook, mixi..)? Skype? etc.

    • For what?

    • How often?

    • individual differences?


Digital divide

Digital haves - Info rich

Access

Skills

Knowledge

Attitude

The Gap

Digital not haves - Info poor

ICT: information and communications technology


Digital divide

Digital haves - Info rich

Nations

Generations

Genders

Ethnic groups

“Education”

Economic levels

Social status

Languages

A series of Gaps

Digital not haves - Info poor


Digital divide

  • Evolution of Digital Technologies

  • 1) Provide opportunities

  • 2) Create problems


Digital divide

Digital Technologies

Digital

Divide

Digital

Opportunities

Changes in Society

Education

(Policies, Practices)


Digital divide

Why Digital Divide is

an important issue….


Digital divide

Digital Divide

a deepening of

existing forms of exclusion

Unemployed, poor,

housebound, disabled,

less educated, minorities

Women/girls


Finding facts

Finding Facts


Digital divide

Internet World Statistics (2009)

http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm


Digital divide at a glance itu figures

less than 3 out of every 100 Africans

1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the G8 countries

top 20 countries (Internet bandwidth) ---80% of all Internet users

30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1%

429 million Internet users in G8

444 million Internet users in non-G8

Mobile = 34% of the world’s total mobile users from G8 countries – 14% world population

Digital Divide at A Glance (ITU figures)

G8- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US


Digital divide

Cultural factors

Social factors

(gender, race..)

Digital Divide

Other factors

Economic factors


Internet users by income level of country 2003 asahi statistics p 189

High-income : 65.5%

Upper middle income : 7.8%

Lower middle income : 21.5%

Low-income : 5.6%

Internet Users by Income level of country (2003) Asahi Statistics p.189


Ucla world internet project 2004 internet users

UCLA World Internet Project (2004)- Internet Users -

Britain men 63.6; women 55.0Germany men 50.4; women 41.7Hungary men 20.3; women 15.1Italy men 41.7; women 21.5Japan men 54.7; women 46.2Korea men 67.8; women 53.8Macao men 37.8; women 28.8Singapore men 47.2; women 34.0Spain men 46.4; women 27.2Sweden men 67.7; women 64.4Taiwan men 25.1; women 23.5United States men 73.1; women 69.0


Digital divide

“…86 percent of women ages 18 to 29 were online, compared with 80 percent of men in the same age group.

“…among the older group, those age 65 and older, 34 percent of men are online, compared with 21 percent of women.”

USA, Washingtonpost Thursday, December 29, 2005


White paper on information and telecommunications in japan

White Paper on information and Telecommunications in Japan

http://www.johotsusintokei.soumu.go.jp/whitepaper/eng/WP2002/press_information01.pdf


Japan

Japan

Culture!

Language

non-alphabet writing)

Age

Handwriting

Computer anxiety

Nigate-ishiki

Computer experience

Education!

Digital divide


Japan1

Japan

Regional gap

Internet Use via Mobiles

Generation gap

- Old people

Housewives

People with disabilities


Digital divide

What do these mean?


Digital divide

  • Not easy to stop/lessen gaps

If we don’t do anything about it….

Need for awareness

Need for strong policies

Need for international collaboration

Need for education


What can we do

What can we do?


Digital divide

  • World Summit on the Information Society

  • http://www.itu.int/wsis/tunis/newsroom/stats/Building-digital-bridges_2005.pdf

  • International Collaboration

  • “UNDP etc – e Vietnamese Village”

  • “Japan – Asian Broadband Project”

  • 2. NGOs/Public sectors

  • “Brazil – Tele-centers”

  • 3. National Policies

  • “Egypt – E-readiness Plan”

  • “Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity”

  • 4. Business Involvement “Sudan – SUDATEL”

  • #### Individual efforts


Digital divide

World Summit on the Information Society

  • - 8 key areas for policy suggested-

  • Access for all to HW & SW

  • Changed roles of teachers/learners

  • Promoting lifelong learning

  • Quality assurance

  • Enhanced citizenship

  • Brokering services and agencies

  • Support, encourage & direct research

  • Change in role of policy-maker in education


Digital divide

Free discussion - What do you think?

“Teachers should be trained and retrained to effectively and efficiently use ICT in teaching and management!”

– from digital divide/opportunities perspective

  • Singapore and Korea

  • Training, retraining every 3 yrs

  • 30% of teaching hours/curriculum

  • - ICT use in teacher evaluation

  • - All classrooms connected to the high-speed Internet


Digital divide

Digital Opportunities

ICT, helping to overcome

some forms of exclusion

Distance learning to remote areas

Village tele-centers with ICT

Maori education in NZ


Digital divide

Digital technologies

Lifelong society


Digital divide

Education

Youth,

prepare for changing world

Adults,

enable to participate in this world

Everyone,

continue to update


Digital divide

Do you see any

Digital Divide in Education??


Digital divide

  • Digital Divide in Education

  • Digital divide in investment (input)

  • Digital divide in ICT use (process)

  • Digital divide in people (output)


1 digital divide in investment

1. Digital Dividein Investment

Input Factors

Hardware, Materials (software),

Connectivity;

Integration of ICT in curriculum; Supports;

Policies


Computer equipment in schools source japan mext 200 5

Computer equipment in schoolsSource: Japan, MEXT (2005)


Digital divide

“why is it important

to understand and lesson digital divide

in investment

in formal education?”


Digital divide

“Schools or educational institutions can play

a compensatory

equalising role.”


2 digital divide in ict use

2. Digital Dividein ICT Use

Process Factors

Different approaches to ICT use

- Used for advanced applications

and thinking?

- Used for basic skill training?

- Used for computer games?


University faculty s use of ict in teaching source japan nime 2003

28.1

25.4

Administrative communication by email

13.0

22.6

Q & A by email

13.8

14.3

Presentation tools

12.0

Students report submission by email

13.7

9.3

Posting instructional materials on web

16.3

used always

0.8

used often

0.9

Posting lecture video on web

0

20

40

60

80

100

University Faculty’s Use of ICT in TeachingSource: Japan, NIME (2003)


Digital divide

As a presentation tool?As a simple communication tool?As an administrative tool?As a problem-solving tool?As a creation tool?As a research tool?


Digital divide

Gaps between teachers and students,among teachers and among studentsin terms ofSkills & KnowledgeWays of using ICTAttitude


3 digital divide in different groups

3. Digital Dividein Different Groups

Human (Outcome) Factors

Digital literacy?

- ICT skills / knowledge

- confidence

- competencies

“What is more important is to empower people……..” (Week2-reading#1 “Learning to bridge the DD - p.56)”


Ict skills university perception source nime 2003

ICT Skills (University, Perception)Source: NIME (2003)

“I do not have adequate

ICT skills and knowledge”

- More faculty than students

- More older people than younger ones

- More people in humanities and social sciencesthan those in natural sciences and engineering


Digital divide

  • Some policies (Education)

  • USA – “E-rate program”

  • EU- “eLearning Action Plan”

  • Japan - “Millennium Project”,

  • “E-Japan Strategy”

  • 4. Romania – “Multipurpose Community

  • Telecenters”


Digital divide

Digital divide in informal learning

(more learning happens outside schools)

Home differences

Differences at work

Differences in communities


Digital divide

  • Digital Divide

  • Understanding the issue

  • from various perspectives

  • As a teacher in the future

  • As a university student

  • “To make ICT used and useful”


Digital divide

Group Activity

DIGITAL DIVIDE in the PHILIPPINES


Digital divide

NEXT MEETING

Approaches in using media

for instruction


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