Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. Motivating Others. THE MEANINGS OF MOTIVATION. Motivation is (1) an internal state that leads to effort toward objectives, and (2) an activity performed by one person to get another person to accomplish work.

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

  • Motivating Others


The meanings of motivation

THE MEANINGS OF MOTIVATION

  • Motivation is (1) an internal state that leads to effort toward objectives, and (2) an activity performed by one person to get another person to accomplish work.

  • Motivation might be directed toward subordinates, coworkers, supervisors, or customers.


10 useful attitudes and skills for motivation

10 USEFUL ATTITUDES AND SKILLS FOR MOTIVATION

  • Asking the person what he or she hopes to achieve in the situation.

  • Figuring out if the person has the ability to do what I need done.

  • Explaining exactly what you want to the person you are trying to motivate.

  • Giving lots of feedback to worker.

  • Specifying what needs to be done.


Attitudes and skills for motivation continued

ATTITUDES AND SKILLS FOR MOTIVATION, continued

  • Treat the other person fairly.

  • Avoid instilling fear in the person.

  • Generously praise person who gets your work accomplished.

  • Before giving a reward, find out what would appeal to the person.

  • Recognize that having the right skill is needed for person to be motivated.


Wiifm

(WIIFM)

  • “What’s in it for me?” is the most fundamental principle of motivation.

  • People want to know how they will benefit from performing a task.

  • Performing a social good might lead to reward of feeling good about oneself.

  • Must know what needs person is attempting to satisfy.


Relationship between needs and behavior

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEEDS AND BEHAVIOR

  • Needs lead to behavior, or what people actually do. Two examples:

  • Person with need for affiliation might be extraverted, and motivated to work with others.

  • Person with need for achievement might be conscientious and motivated to accomplish useful work.


Needs motivating 99 of employees

NEEDS MOTIVATING 99% OF EMPLOYEES

  • Achievement

  • Power

  • Affiliation

  • Autonomy

  • Esteem

  • Safety and security

  • Equity (fair treatment)

Recognizing these needs enables you to apply the WIIFM principle.


The nature of positive reinforcement

THE NATURE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

  • Increases the probability that behavior will be repeated by rewarding people for making the desired response.

  • Reward must be contingent upon doing something right.

  • Negative reinforcement rewards people by taking away an uncomfortable consequence of their behavior.


Rules for positive reinforcement

RULES FOR POSITIVEREINFORCEMENT

  • State clearly what behavior will lead to a reward.

  • Choose an appropriate reward.

  • Supply ample feedback.

  • Schedule rewards intermittently (surprise!).

  • Make the rewards follow the observed behavior closely in time.


Rewards for positive reinforcement continued

REWARDS FOR POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT, continued

  • Make the rewards fit the behavior (big deeds merit big rewards, and the reverse).

  • Make the rewards visible (others should notice the reward, and the recipient should feel the difference).

  • Change the rewards periodically.

  • Reward the group or team also.


Study of what workers want from their jobs

STUDY OF WHAT WORKERS WANT FROM THEIR JOBS

  • Competitive salary

  • 100 % health-care coverage

  • Company-matched 401(k) investments

  • Bonus programs

  • Flexible work schedules

  • Compressed workweek

  • Good boss relationship

  • Being treated with respect

Source: Harris Interactive/Kronos®


Using recognition to motivate others

USING RECOGNITION TO MOTIVATE OTHERS

  • Recognition is a powerful form of positive reinforcement, yet low cost or no cost.

  • Most workers crave recognition, yet feel they do not receive enough of it.

  • 70% of employees surveyed cited lack of appreciation as key factor for quitting.

  • Recognition is not a substitute for good pay.


More about recognition

MORE ABOUT RECOGNITION

  • Identify meritorious behavior, then recognize behavior with reward.

  • Time praise when it will do the most good, such as in a meeting.

  • Recognition and praise are low cost, yet powerful motivators.

  • Works best in culture of recognition.


Expectancy theory

Expectancy Theory

  • How much effort people expend depends on the reward they expect to receive in return.

  • In other words, WIIFM


Expectancy theory1

Expectancy Theory

  • Assumptions

    • People are logical and rational.

    • People want to maximize gain and minimize loss.

    • People choose among alternatives by selecting the one they think they have the best chance of attaining.

    • People choose the alternative with the biggest personal payoff.


Expectancy theory components

Expectancy Theory Components

  • Effort to Performance Expectancy

    “Am I able to do the task?”

    0 - 1.0

  • Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy

    “What are my chances of receiving the reward?”

    0 – 1.0

  • Valence (Exercise 10.3 on page 211)

    “What is the value or worth of the outcome?”

    -100 to +100


Capsule overview of expectancy theory

CAPSULE OVERVIEW OF EXPECTANCY THEORY

Person will be motivated when

  • Effort-to-performance expectancy is high. Person believes task is doable.

  • Performance-to-outcome expectancy is high. Person believes performance will lead to certain outcomes.

  • Valence is high. Outcome is valuable.


How moods influence expectancy theory

HOW MOODS INFLUENCE EXPECTANCY THEORY

  • Emotions influence impact of expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences.

  • Positive mood increases perceived connection between (a) effort and performance (b) performance and desired outcomes, and (c) valences attached to those outcomes.


Diagnosing motivation with expectancy theory

DIAGNOSING MOTIVATION WITH EXPECTANCY THEORY

  • Does person have the right skills and self-efficacy?

  • How assured is person that performance will lead to the promised reward?

  • How badly does person want the reward?

  • Are there any zeroes in response to first three questions? If so motivation will be zero because

    Motivation = (EP) x (PO) x (sum of all valences for outcomes)


Guidelines for applying expectancy theory

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING EXPECTANCY THEORY

  • Train and encourage people.

  • Make explicit link between rewards and performance.

  • Make sure rewards are large enough.

  • Understand individual differences in valences.

  • Use the Pygmalion effect to increase (EP) expectancies. (High expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy.)


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