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Period 2. Biochemistry. Lena Vincent Christina Rohall David Han Steven H ausman. Ionic bonds. Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another An atom losing electrons becomes positively charged An atom gaining electrons becomes negatively charged

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Period 2


Lena Vincent

Christina Rohall

David Han

Steven Hausman

Ionic bonds

Ionic bonds

  • Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

  • An atom losing electrons becomes positively charged

  • An atom gaining electrons becomes negatively charged

  • These positively and negatively charged atoms are known as ions

Covalent bonds

Covalent Bonds

  • Forms when electrons are shared between atoms

  • Structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule

Ph scale

pH Scale

  • Used to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution

  • Acidic solutions contain higher concentration of H+ ions than pure water, then it will have pH values below seven

  • Basic, or alkaline, solutions that contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water, then it will have pH values above seven



  • Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

  • Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy

  • Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes

  • Are made up of monosaccharaides and polysaccharides



  • Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms

  • Lipids can be used to store energy

  • Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings

  • Fatty acid chains make up lipids

Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information

  • Two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid(RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)

  • Made up of nucleotides



  • Made up of amino acids

  • Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes

  • Others transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease

Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Processes that change or transform one set of chemicals into another

  • Chemical reaction always involves changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds

Lewis dot

Lewis Dot

  • Shows the number of electrons in the “outer shell” (valence electrons)

  • Can be used to determine how elements bond



  • Mixture:material with two or more elements that are physically mixed, but not chemically mixed

  • Solution: mixture of two or more substances that are evenly distributed

  • Solute: substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution

  • Solvent: substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution

Even more vocab


  • Acid: compound that forms hydrogen ions(H+) in solutions

  • Base: compound that produces hydroxide ions(OH+) in solutions



Atomic Number

Element Symbol

Element Name

Atomic Mass

Periodic table

Periodic Table

Multiple choice questions

Multiple Choice Questions!

  • What are the subatomic particles of an atom?

    • Protons, neutrons, electrons

    • Nucleus, protons, electrons

    • Only protons and neutrons

    • None of the above


  • What is the definition of cohesion?

    • When there is uneven distribution of electrons

    • Compound that produces hydroxide ions

    • Attraction between molecules of the same substance

    • Attraction between molecules of different substances


  • What does pH measure?

    • Concentration of only negative ions in a solution

    • Concentration of H+ ions in a solution

    • Concentration of OH- ions in a solution

    • None of the above


  • Which is the most acidic?

    • Lemon Juice

    • Stomach acid

    • Acid rain

    • Bleach


  • Proteins are formed from…

    • Lipids

    • Nucleic acids

    • Carbohydrates

    • Amino acids


  • Which of these is the most basic?

    • Stomach acid

    • Water

    • Lemon juice

    • Soap


  • What molecules make up lipids?

    • Carbon and hydrogen atoms

    • Hydrogen and oxygen

    • Sugars and DNA

    • RNA and DNA


  • What is the structure of water?

    • O2H

    • HO2

    • H2O

    • HHO


  • What can destroy enzymes?

    • Heat and acid

    • Explosives

    • A rock

    • Sound


  • Where are the noble gases located in the periodic table?

    • The far left

    • The far right

    • The middle

    • The stair step



  • A

  • C

  • B

  • B

  • D

  • D

  • A

  • C

  • A

  • B

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