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Biochemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Period 2. Biochemistry. Lena Vincent Christina Rohall David Han Steven H ausman. Ionic bonds. Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another An atom losing electrons becomes positively charged An atom gaining electrons becomes negatively charged

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Period 2


Lena Vincent

Christina Rohall

David Han

Steven Hausman

ionic bonds
Ionic bonds
  • Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
  • An atom losing electrons becomes positively charged
  • An atom gaining electrons becomes negatively charged
  • These positively and negatively charged atoms are known as ions
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • Forms when electrons are shared between atoms
  • Structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule
ph scale
pH Scale
  • Used to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
  • Acidic solutions contain higher concentration of H+ ions than pure water, then it will have pH values below seven
  • Basic, or alkaline, solutions that contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water, then it will have pH values above seven
  • Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
  • Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy
  • Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes
  • Are made up of monosaccharaides and polysaccharides
  • Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms
  • Lipids can be used to store energy
  • Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
  • Fatty acid chains make up lipids
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information
  • Two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid(RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
  • Made up of nucleotides
  • Made up of amino acids
  • Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes
  • Others transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Processes that change or transform one set of chemicals into another
  • Chemical reaction always involves changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
lewis dot
Lewis Dot
  • Shows the number of electrons in the “outer shell” (valence electrons)
  • Can be used to determine how elements bond
  • Mixture:material with two or more elements that are physically mixed, but not chemically mixed
  • Solution: mixture of two or more substances that are evenly distributed
  • Solute: substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
  • Solvent: substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
even more vocab
  • Acid: compound that forms hydrogen ions(H+) in solutions
  • Base: compound that produces hydroxide ions(OH+) in solutions

Atomic Number

Element Symbol

Element Name

Atomic Mass

multiple choice questions
Multiple Choice Questions!
  • What are the subatomic particles of an atom?
    • Protons, neutrons, electrons
    • Nucleus, protons, electrons
    • Only protons and neutrons
    • None of the above

What is the definition of cohesion?

    • When there is uneven distribution of electrons
    • Compound that produces hydroxide ions
    • Attraction between molecules of the same substance
    • Attraction between molecules of different substances

What does pH measure?

    • Concentration of only negative ions in a solution
    • Concentration of H+ ions in a solution
    • Concentration of OH- ions in a solution
    • None of the above

Which is the most acidic?

    • Lemon Juice
    • Stomach acid
    • Acid rain
    • Bleach

Proteins are formed from…

    • Lipids
    • Nucleic acids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Amino acids

Which of these is the most basic?

    • Stomach acid
    • Water
    • Lemon juice
    • Soap

What molecules make up lipids?

    • Carbon and hydrogen atoms
    • Hydrogen and oxygen
    • Sugars and DNA
    • RNA and DNA

What can destroy enzymes?

    • Heat and acid
    • Explosives
    • A rock
    • Sound

Where are the noble gases located in the periodic table?

    • The far left
    • The far right
    • The middle
    • The stair step
  • A
  • C
  • B
  • B
  • D
  • D
  • A
  • C
  • A
  • B