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Objectives. To understand and illustrate the Law of Constant Composition To learn about Dalton’s theory of atoms To learn how a formula describes a compound’s composition. Dalton Intro. A given compound always contains the same proportion by mass of the elements of which it is composed.

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objectives
Objectives
  • To understand and illustrate the Law of Constant Composition
  • To learn about Dalton’s theory of atoms
  • To learn how a formula describes a compound’s composition

Dalton Intro

slide2

A given compound always contains the same proportion by mass of the elements of which it is composed.

    • A mixture can have variable composition but the composition of a compound is fixed
    • Does this give us a clue about the nature of matter?

Law of Constant Composition (1799 Joseph Louis Proust)

dalton s atomic theory john dalton 1766 1844
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (John Dalton 1766-1844)
  • Dalton’s Atomic Theory states:
    • All elements are composed of atoms
    • All atoms of a given element are identical
    • Atoms of different elements are different
    • Compounds consist of combinations of atoms of different elements
    • Atoms are not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

You have 90 seconds to memorize these 5 parts of the theory!!

formulas of compounds
Formulas of Compounds
  • A compound is represented by a chemical formula in which the number and kind of atoms present is shown by using the element symbols and subscripts.
  • Example: the simple sugar, glucose
slide5

Put your notes away and write a set of rules for how to write a formula of a compound. Be as complete as you can be using what you have learned throughout your course

b formulas of compounds
B. Formulas of Compounds
  • Each atom present is represented by its element symbol.
  • The number of each type of atom is indicated by a subscript written to the right of the element symbol.
  • When only one atom of a given type is present, the subscript 1 is not written.
  • Write a metallic element first if present (MgCl2)
  • Write the central atom of a molecule first (PCl5)
  • Write Carbon first and Hydrogen second for an organic molecule (C6H12O6)
formulas of compounds1
Formulas of compounds
  • Write the formulas for the following compounds:
    • A phosphorus atom bonded to three chlorine atoms
    • A molecule containing two boron atoms and six hydrogen atoms
    • A compound containing one calcium atom for every two chlorine atoms
    • Four hydrogen atoms bonded to a single carbon atom
    • A compound containing two iron atoms for every three oxygen atoms
    • A molecule of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid – four oxygen atoms, eight hydrogen, nine carbon atoms)
slide8

Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4

Aspirin in Motion

Element Hangman

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