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Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence, 1752-1783 Study Presentation . © 2005 Clairmont Press. Georgia and the American Experience. Section 1: The Colonial Period Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony Section 3: The Call for Independence

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Georgia and the American Experience

Chapter 5:

From Royalty to Independence,


Study Presentation

© 2005 Clairmont Press

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Georgia and the American Experience

Section 1: The Colonial Period

Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony

Section 3: The Call for Independence

Section 4:The Revolutionary War Period

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Section 1: The Colonial Period

  • Essential Question:

    • What were the similarities and differences between the three colonial regions in terms of political, economic, and socio-religious development?

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Section 1: The Colonial Period

  • What words do I needtoknow?

    • New England Colonies

    • Middle Colonies

    • Southern Colonies

    • apprentice

    • puritans

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Colonial Transportation and Communication

  • Boats used for shipping and transportation

  • Stagecoaches were available, but slow mode of transportation

  • Many old Indian trails were used

  • Newspapers read in cities; news often old when it arrived in rural areas

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Education in the Colonies

  • Schooling took place in home or church; boys were taught practical skills

  • Girls learned homemaking skills

  • Apprentices learned specific skills from master craftsmen

  • First public schools began in New England; only boys attended

  • Wealthy families in South hired private tutors or had their sons schooled in Europe

  • Primitive “Old Field Schools” opened for boys from “common” families

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Religion in Colonial Georgia

  • Anglican Church, or Church of England, made official church of Georgia colony in 1758

  • Church attendance expected; shorter sermons and music common

  • Moravians and Jews also practiced religion in Georgia

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Leisure Activities in Southern Colonies

  • Fox hunting, horse races, week-long parties with friends and relatives popular

  • Food central to large social gatherings

  • Children’s games: jump rope, hoops, tennis, London bridge, hopscotch, leap frog, yo-yos and puzzles

  • Storytelling

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Romance and Marriage

  • Girls often married in their early teens

  • Courtships took place at dances, church, or during supervised home visits

  • Weddings were a day-long affair with great celebrations

  • Some wealthy families arranged marriages for business gain

  • Husbands were expected to provide; wives could not own property

Click to return to Table of Contents

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Section 2: Georgia Becomes A Royal Colony


    • What political forces shaped Georgia after it became a royal colony?

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Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony

  • What words do I need to know?

    • proprietary colony

    • royal colony

    • parish

    • French and Indian War

    • palisades

    • cracker

    • independence

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Change in Colonial Government Status

  • Proprietary Colony: governed by a Board of Trustees

  • Georgia ceased to be Proprietary Colony in 1752

  • Royal Colony: colony directly governed by the King

  • Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1752; some people returned to Georgia who had left the colony while it was proprietary

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The First Royal Government

  • Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal governor, arrived in 1754

  • Reynolds introduced the idea of self-government

  • Two-chamber legislature set up: Commons House of Assembly (Lower House) and Governor’s Council (Upper House)

  • Court of Conscience settled disputes; overseen by justice of the peace

  • Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could vote

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North America, 1754

  • Spain claimed Florida and Mexico

  • France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great Lakes, and parts of Canada; New Orleans (south) and Detroit (north) anchored French settlements

  • Great Britain had established the 13 coloniesalong the Atlantic coast

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French and Indian WarOrigins

  • France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of the American continent

  • Both countries feared the other would gain the most power

  • France had the stronger army with more experienced leadership; British had better navy

  • Both sides had allies with certain Indian tribes

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The French and Indian War

  • Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley area (more than 200,000 square miles)

  • The French built several forts in the area; many Indians sided with the French

  • The Virginia governor sent Captain George Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity (near today’s Pittsburgh); a battle erupted

  • The war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British controlled the Ohio Valley

  • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war

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Georgia and the War’s Aftermath

  • Treaty of Paris set Georgia’s western boundary at the Mississippi River

  • Proclamation of 1763 (King George III): Georgia’s southern boundary set at St. Mary’s River; Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains

  • Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and in the coastal region

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Georgia’s First Assembly

  • First met in Savannah in 1755

  • Passed bills to repair and build roads

  • Organized a militia

  • Codes created to limit rights of slaves

  • Governor Reynolds was replaced in 1757 by Captain Henry Ellis

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Governor Henry Ellis

  • Believed Savannah was one the world’s hottest places

  • Colonists immigrated to Georgia from South Carolina and the West Indies

  • Offered large land grants and slavery increased (3,600 slaves by 1759)

  • The economy flourished; more farms and goods to buy

  • In 1761, Ellis became royal governor of Nova Scotia, in Canada

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Governor James Wright

  • Wanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to settlers

  • Completed Savannah’s defenses by strengthening forts and building palisades (fences made of sharpened stakes)

  • Sunbury became Georgia’s official port of entry

  • Land purchases increased greatly

  • More schools established, but for upper class children

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Georgia Crackers

  • People from Virginia and the Carolinas settled into middle and western parts of the colony

  • Plantation owners viewed them as “undesirable people”

  • Soon, these lower class peoples were called “crackers,” which was meant as an insult

  • Crackers were not welcome and thought of as ones who did not obey the colony’s laws

Click to return to Table of Contents

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Section 3: The Call for Independence


    • How was Georgia’s role in the Revolutionary War affected by the attitudes of the colonists?

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Section 3: The Call for Independence

  • What words do I need to know?

    • Tories

    • Patriots

    • Boycotts

    • Proclamation of 1763

    • Liberty Boys

    • Acts (Sugar, Stamp, Townsend, Quartering)

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Unhappy with British Acts

  • Great Britain needed money; much debt and security expenses resulted from the French and Indian War

  • Sugar Act: tax on sugar and molasses imported from the West Indies

  • Stamp Act: tax on newspapers, legal documents, and licenses

  • Georgians disapproved of these acts

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The Liberty Boys

  • Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act

  • Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty”

  • Some called them “Liberty Brawlers”

  • Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s Tavern

  • Georgia only colony to actually sell the stamps

  • Stamp Act was eventually repealed

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Protests Increase

  • Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of Georgia colonial assembly, led Townshend Act protests

  • Townshend Acts:placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints

  • Governor Wright disbanded the assembly to try to end the protests

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Continental Congress

  • Met in Philadelphia in September 1774 to protest “Intolerable Acts” levied against the Massachusetts colonists

  • Georgia was not represented

  • Urged colonies to establish “Committees of Safety”

  • Agreed to stop all trade with Britain

  • Carried on its work in secret

  • “Provincial Congress” held in Savannah in January 1775; less than one-half of Georgia’s parishes were represented

Click to return to Table of Contents

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Section 4: The Revolutionary War Period


    • Why was there an American Revolution?

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Section 4: The American Revolution

  • What words do I need to know?

    • Second Continental Congress

    • Declaration of Independence

    • ratify

    • Articles of Confederation

    • siege

    • Treaty of Paris (1783)

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Second Continental Congress

  • Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battles

  • Drafted petition for King George III, asking for end of unfriendly steps against the colonies

  • Georgia III refused to accept the petition

  • Authorized Continental Army

  • Georgia’s Lyman Hall arrived in May 1775

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Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress

  • Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July 1775

  • Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent Georgia in Philadelphia

  • Delegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for Georgians

  • Governor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia

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Declaration of Independence

  • Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold more than 500,000 copies

  • Other pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinion

  • August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence

  • The Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war

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Georgia’s First State Constitution

  • About one-third of Georgians remained loyal to Great Britain; they were called Tories

  • The Whigs influenced a state constitution allowing separation of powers and giving citizens rights to agree how they were governed

  • May 1777: Constitution adopted at Constitutional Convention in Savannah

  • Eight counties formed: Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Richmond, Wilkes, and Liberty

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The 1777 Georgia Constitution

  • The governor’s power was limited

  • Executive Council (12 legislators) held greatest power

  • Council could overrule the governor’s decisions

  • John Treutlen appointed Georgia’s first governor

  • Georgia’s 1777 Constitution changed in 1789

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The Articles of Confederation

  • First Constitution of the United States of America

  • Ratified (approved) on July 4, 1776

  • Went into effect in January 1781, when ratified by Maryland and Virginia

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Revolutionary War Fighting in Georgia

  • Savannah captured and looted by British troops in December 1778; lootings, murders, and burnings occurred

  • Sunbury port captured in early 1779; Augusta was also attacked

  • Georgia militia not effective against well-trained British troops

  • Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia

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Battle of Kettle Creek (1779)

  • Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia

  • Great victory for morale of the militia and Georgians seeking independence

  • Won badly-needed weapons and horses from the British

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Siege of Savannah (1779)

  • 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to Savannah

  • Attack on October 9 resulted in 1,000 American and French deaths in less than an hour; only 40 British troops died

  • Polish Count Casimir Pulaski killed

  • Savannah remained under British control for nearly four more years

  • Guerrilla warfare continued in the Georgia backcountry

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Georgia Wartime Heroes

  • Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a group of British loyalists who bragged of murdering an American colonel; Hart County is the only county named for a woman

  • Austin Dabney fought with distinction and was wounded at Kettle Creek; he also saved Elijah Clarke’s life during that battle

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The War Ends

  • Elijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia,and the Continental Army regain Augusta from British in June 1781; 11 battles or skirmishes fought in Georgia during the war

  • George Washington, with French help, force British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781

  • British leave Savannah in the spring of 1782

  • Treaty of Paris (September 1783) ends war; treaty is signed by United States, Great Britain, and France

Click to return to Table of Contents