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Understanding POST and ROM-BIOS service functions. Numerous low-level services are available to real-mode programs (include boot-loaders). Power-On Self-Test (POST). When computer is first turned on, the CPU starts executing instructions in ROM-BIOS Reset-address: CS=0xF000, EIP=0xFFF0

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Understanding POST and ROM-BIOS service functions

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Understanding post and rom bios service functions l.jpg

Understanding POST and ROM-BIOS service functions

Numerous low-level services are available to real-mode programs (include boot-loaders)


Power on self test post l.jpg

Power-On Self-Test (POST)

  • When computer is first turned on, the CPU starts executing instructions in ROM-BIOS

  • Reset-address: CS=0xF000, EIP=0xFFF0

  • Initial routines perform vital functions:

    • Verify amount of installed read/write memory

    • Setup the table of real-mode interrupt-vectors

    • Detect and initialize the peripheral equipment

    • Setup parameters in the BIOS DATA AREA

  • Read in, and transfer to, the ‘boot-loader’


Memory layout during post l.jpg

Memory Layout during POST

The POST creates the

Interrupt Vector Table

and fills in parameters

of the Bios Data area

Beginning…

…Finished

RAM

ROM-BIOS

RAM

ROM-BIOS

VRAM

VRAM

1MB

POST finishes up

by reading in the

boot-loader from

a storage device

Boot-loader

BIOS DATA

IVT


Two demo programs l.jpg

Two demo-programs

  • The program ‘showivt.cpp’ lets you look at the table of (real-mode) interrupt vectors (addresses 0x00000000 to 0x00000400)

  • The program ‘showrbda.cpp’ lets you see the parameter-values that the ROM-BIOS has stored in its ROM-BIOS DATA-AREA (addresses 0x00000400 to 0x00000500)

  • A special device-driver (named ‘dos.o’) is needed for accessing these memory areas


Rom bios service functions l.jpg

ROM-BIOS service-functions

  • During POST, the startup routines need to use various low-level system-services:

    • To show diagnostic messages on the display

    • To accept keystroke-commands from a user

    • To query the real-time clock/calendar device

    • To optionally send important data to a printer

    • To read in a data-sector from the boot device

  • The actions are performed as subroutines


Space in rom is tight l.jpg

Space in ROM is ‘tight’

  • Size of a typical ROM-BIOS chip is 64KB

  • Needs to store the instructions and data for several hundred different functions

  • So cannot afford to waste precious space

  • Routines are written in assembly language

  • Clever coding is used to optimize storage usage (e.g., ROM functions get invoked by software-interrupt instructions (2-bytes) as an alternative to subroutine-calls (3-bytes)


Services remain available l.jpg

Services remain available

  • All of the low-level ROM-BIOS services remain available to Real-Mode programs

  • This includes ‘boot-loader’ programs

  • If we’re going to write our own boot-loader, we will benefit by knowing what low-level services are already available in ROM (as we will face tight space limitations, too: namely, the 512-byte disk sector-size)


Catalog of rom bios services l.jpg

Catalog of ROM-BIOS services

  • int 0x10: video display services

  • int 0x11: equipment-list service

  • int 0x12: memory-size service

  • int 0x13: disk input/output services

  • int 0x14: serial communications services

  • int 0x15: system software services


Rom bios services continued l.jpg

ROM-BIOS services (continued)

  • int 0x16: keyboard input/control services

  • int 0x17: parallel-port printer services

  • int 0x18: diskless bootstrap service

  • int 0x19: system reboot service

  • int 0x1A: real-time clock services


Example get memory size l.jpg

Example: Get Memory Size

  • When it’s time to load an operating system the ‘OS-loader’ will need to know where it can place the OS code and data so as to efficiently fit within the system’s memory

  • So the question will be: How much actual ram is available?

  • One of the simplest ROM-BIOS services can be invoked to get the answer.


Calling get memory size l.jpg

Calling ‘Get Memory Size’

  • No service-parameters are required

  • Just execute an ‘int 0x12’ instruction

  • Size of the available ram is returned in AX

    (expressed in kilobytes: 1KB=1024 bytes)

  • Program-code looks like this:int 0x12; call BIOS servicemov kb_ram, ax; save return-value


How does it work l.jpg

How does it work?

  • Executing ‘int 0x12’ transfers control to an Interrupt Service Routine within the ROM

  • The CPU gets the entry-point for this ISR from the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT)

  • The IVT has enough room for 256 ‘vectors’ (all vectors use a doubleword of storage)

  • The number 0x12 is an array-index for IVT

  • Example: vector 0x12 equals 0xF000F841


Here s the isr s code l.jpg

Here’s the ISR’s code

isr_0x12:

push ds; preseve DS

mov ax, #0x40; address BD area

mov ds, ax; using DS register

mov ax, [0x0013]; get POST param

pop ds; restore DS

iret; return from ISR


Demo program memsize s l.jpg

Demo Program: ‘memsize.s’

  • We wrote a simple boot-sector program to illustrate the ‘Get Memory Size’ service

  • It executes ‘int 0x12’ to obtain the amount of usable real-mode memory (in kilobytes)

  • It converts the binary value obtained in AX to its decimal representation as a string of ascii characters, and ‘int 0x10’ functions to display the information in readable form


In class exercise 1 l.jpg

In-Class Exercise #1

  • Write a similar boot-sector demo program that will display the Equipment-Check List (a bitmap showing some installed devices that’s returned in AX if ‘int 0x11’ executes)

  • You can look at our ‘showmsw.s’ demo as a guide to writing your assembler code


Equipment list bitmap l.jpg

Equipment List Bitmap

  • 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Internal modem

(1=yes, 0=no)

Number of printer-ports

Number of serial-ports

Number of diskette drives (if bit 0 is set)

(00=1 drive, 01=2 drives, etc)

Initial video-display mode (11=80x25 monochrome,

10=80x25 color, 01=40x25 color, 00=EGA/VGA/SVGA)

PS/2-type pointing-device is installed (1=yes, 0=no)

External math-coprocessor installed (1=yes, 0=no)

Diskette available for booting (1=yes, 0=no)


In class exercice 2 l.jpg

In-Class Exercice #2

  • Enhance the ‘showmem.s’ demo-program by showing additional information about the amount of physical memory installed: use ROM-BIOS system-services int 0x15 function 0xE8, subfunction 0x01 (see Ralf Brown’s online Interrupt-List for details)


Extended memory areas l.jpg

Extended Memory Areas

mov ax, #0xE801

int 0x15

Pentium’s

Memory-area

(4GB)

Number of 64KB blocks

Is reported by ROM-BIOS

(in register BX)

80286 memory-area

(16MB)

Number of 1KB blocks

Is reported by ROM-BIOS

(in register AX)

8086 memory-area (1MB)


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