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WTO - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WTO. Objectives. WTO Liberalise world trade Promote economic stability Lay down the rules for world trade 148 Members, most non-members are seeking to join. What do they do?. Trade talks Negotiate trade barriers Interpret trade agreements

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • WTO
    • Liberalise world trade
    • Promote economic stability
    • Lay down the rules for world trade
  • 148 Members, most non-members are seeking to join.
what do they do
What do they do?
  • Trade talks
  • Negotiate trade barriers
  • Interpret trade agreements
    • These are complex. One example is four paragraphs of a 12,000 page document which discusses the exportation and importation of ‘soft round cheese’.
trade disputes
Trade Disputes
  • WTO has a ‘disputes resolution panel’.
  • 3 judges that deal with accusations of one state of another of violations of trade.
  • Can impose sanctions.
  • What they want is that states see no advantage to violating WTO rules.
sanctions
Sanctions
  • Penalty, or ban
  • Can involve tariffs
    • Tax levied on imported goods
key wto trade rulings 2005
Key WTO trade rulings: 2005
  • Dispute between EU and US over subsidies of aircraft manufacturing.
  • Both filed disputes against each other.
  • Decided to settle dispute outside the WTO.
slide7
2005
  • Brazil lodged a complaint against US cotton farmers
  • WTO ruled against the US
  • Congress pressure, but Bush complied with WTO ruling.
why not withdraw
Why not withdraw?
  • Disastrous: no benefits when selling goods to other economies.
  • Estimated in US trade added to average income $9,000 per person in the US.
  • If they remain members but refuse to comply, then this is an incentive for states to ignore WTO rulings. If the US can do it, so can we.
  • Lead to collapse of international trading system. No one wants this.
2005 2007
2005-2007
  • Antigua, Barbuda
  • Banning US residence from gambling online was a move to protect US gambling institutions.
  • US citizens could place bets with agencies located outside the US on the internet.
  • WTO upheld this complaint.
  • US forced to remove restrictions placed on citizens.
is this fair
Is this fair?
  • Impact on state sovereignty.
  • In order to comply with both the cotton and gambling cases, the US was compelled to change US domestic policy.
  • This is usually an exclusive right of the government.
  • Even more problematic with internet gambling. Laws had to be changed.
impact on sovereignty
Impact on Sovereignty
  • When a new state becomes a member, they must change their existing policies and domestic laws in order to comply with WTO agreements.
  • Challenges the concept of sovereignty in a very real sense.
criticisms of the wto
Criticisms of the WTO?
  • Uruguay round, started in 1986, no agreement until 1994.
  • Takes time for states to agree.
  • Doha round began in 2001, nowhere near concluding.
  • All states within negotiations are trying to look out for themselves.
criticisms of the wto1
Criticisms of the WTO?
  • No positive discrimination allowed in trading rules. Cannot impose barriers against states whose goods may involve Human Rights violations or Environmental destruction
  • Mexico – Tuna – Dolphins case: US tried to reform Mexican tuna production, but WTO ruled against the US.
extended response
Extended response
  • This is one way can draw in a key global institution into arguments.
  • Environment – WTO
  • Human Rights – WTO, etc
eu and us
EU and US
  • Protect their own economies in the form of subsidies.
  • Developing states find it hard to compete.
  • Weakness of internationalism (not just WTO), states have to be willing to make sacrifices in their interests.
  • Danger that Doha will collapse because of this.
  • Return to protectionism.
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