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Status and Future of n -physics. What do I talk about?. Motivations Oscillations Status Open Questions Near Future Not so far Future Conclusions. Why are we doing ν -physics?. SM is very successful but it leaves a lot of questions open

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Status and future of n physics

Status and Future of n-physics

Björn Wonsak

What do i talk about
What do I talk about?

  • Motivations

  • Oscillations

  • Status

  • Open Questions

  • Near Future

  • Not so far Future

  • Conclusions

Björn Wonsak

Why are we doing physics
Why are we doing ν-physics?

  • SM is very successful

  • but it leaves a lot of questions open

    (e.g. astrophysical questions, like big bang, matter-antimatter asymmetry, supernovaes, etc.)

    we want to understand physics beyond the SM

  • There are two ways to do that:

    • High Energies bigger accelerators

    • Study rare, tiny effects more statistics, lower background

Björn Wonsak

Why are we doing physics1
Why are we doing ν-physics?

  • Tiny effect (mn/En)2~(eV/GeV)2=10–18 !

  • Suitable methode: Interferometry

    • Needs coherent source

    • Needs Interference (i.e., large mixing angles)

    • Needs long baseline

  • All this is given us by nature:

    Neutrino Interferometry (Oscillations) is a unique tool to study physics at very high scales !!!

Lowest order effect of physics at short distances !!!

Björn Wonsak

What are oscillations
What are ν-oscillations?

  • Flavour eigenstates ne,m,tare not the mass eigenstates n1,2,3

    neutrino mixing

Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) Matrix:

  • This leads to oscillations between the ne,m,t like in the Kaon system

  • ν must have different masses (not all are massless)

  • Leptonflavour is not strictly conserved

Already beyond the SM !

Björn Wonsak

What are oscillations1
What are ν-oscillations?

propagation determined bymass-eigenstates

source createsflavor-eigenstates

detector seesflavor-eigenstates









slightly different frequencies→ phase difference changes

Mass eigenstates n2,n3with m2, m3

Flavor eigenstates nm, nt

Björn Wonsak

What are oscillations2
What are ν-oscillations?

Probability to find vτ

Distance x in Losz

  • Oscillation probability


experiment needs energy resolution

experiment needs statistics


Losz, Δm2

Björn Wonsak

What are oscillations3
What are ν-oscillations?

Zero for CP


Three flavour mixing:

3 mixing angles and 1 CP-violating phase

If neutrinos are Majorana particles:

2 additional Majorana-Phases (CPV): α1, α2

Björn Wonsak

Example for 3 flavour Oscillation probability !

L/E is crucial !





Björn Wonsak

What do we know
What do we know?

  • Atmospheric neutrinos


Atmosphärische nBeschleuniger n

Björn Wonsak

What do we know1
What do we know?

  • Solar neutrinos





Mass effects in the sun dominate !

Björn Wonsak

What are oscillations4
What are ν-oscillations?

Three flavour mixing:

3 mixing angles and 1 CP-violating phase

Very different Dm2 in different sectors

Solar and atmospheric oscillations can be regarded as independent

2 flavor discription is sufficient

If neutrinos are Majorana particles:

2 additional Majorana-Phases (CPV): α1, α2

Björn Wonsak

What do we want to know
What do we want to know?

bb0n: claim by Klapdor-Kleingrothaus !

  • Dirac or Majorana ?

  • Absolute mass scale ?

  • How small is θ13 ?

  • CP-violation ?

  • Mass hierarchy ?

  • Verify Ocsillations ?

  • LSND ? Sterile neutrinos ? CPT-violation ?

direct measurement: Katrin aims for mn<0,2eV

Diappearance energyspectra, nt apperance

  • can be adressed by oscillation experiments

  • need specialised experiments

Björn Wonsak

What comes next
What comes next?





started this year

Magnetized steel/scintillator calorimeter

  • low E neutrinos (few GeV): nm disappearance experiment

  • 4 x1020 pot/year  2500 nm CC/year

  • compare Det1-Det2 response vs E  in 2-6 years sensitivity to Dm2atm

  • main goal: reduce the errors on Dm223 and sin22q23 as needed for sin22q13measurement

Björn Wonsak

NC/CC ratio measured

contains four neutrino interactions

Björn Wonsak

What comes next?

nτ appearance experiment

start end 2006

(search for q13)

Emulsion CloudChamber (ECC)

1,8 kton mass

En≈ 17 GeV

Björn Wonsak

Basic “cell”

Target Trackers

Pb/Em. target

µ spectrometer

8 cm

8 m


Pb/Em. brick


1 mm



Extract selected brick

technic already used by Donut

nt discovery anno 2000

Emulsion Analysis

Vertex search

Decay search

e/γ ID, kinematics

Electronic detectors

select ν interacting brick

µ ID, charge and p

Björn Wonsak

What comes next1
What comes next?


1 km

2 reaktors: 8.4GW Pth

  • Double Chooz

100-200 m

12.7 m3

12.7 m3

Search for θ13: Doppel-CHOOZ Reaktorneutrino experiment (France)

first data taking beginning 2007

Double-Chooz sensitivity for (m2 = 2.0-2.5 10-3 eV2):

sin2(213) < 0.025-0.03, 90% C.L.

Björn Wonsak







Björn Wonsak

What comes next to next
What comes next to next?

  • monitor (beam

    direction and intensity)

Same spectrum as SK,

BG measurement

n energy spectrum

and intensity

The first Super-Beam: off-axis T2K, from Tokai to SK

start around 2009

Björn Wonsak


ne/ne appearance

start about 2011

30kt liquid Scintillator detector

NUMI beam with 6.5 x 1020 pot/yr

With a new Proton Driver, 25 x 1020 pot/yr Superbeam!

Bunch time information used n–physics comes back to surface

16mrad off-axis

Björn Wonsak




Neutrino superbeams

Neutrino superbeams

Björn Wonsak

for maximal atmospheric mixing

with Dm2≈2,5•10-3 eV2

Björn Wonsak

What have we learned
What have we learned?

  • Smart way to reach high energy scales

  • Already physics beyond the SM

  • A lot of interesting open questions

  • First measurements were highly succesfull

    time for precision measurements

  • A new intertesting experiment every year

    fast growing knowledge

Björn Wonsak