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The gchart Procedure. The gchart Procedure is used to create bar charts of various types (it can also create pie charts. It’s most basic form would look something like this: proc gchart data =save.padgett; vbar plantht; run ; quit ;. The gchart Procedure.

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the gchart procedure
The gchart Procedure
  • The gchart Procedure is used to create bar charts of various types (it can also create pie charts.
  • It’s most basic form would look something like this:


vbar plantht;



the gchart procedure2
The gchart Procedure
  • The vbar (or hbar) statement includes a variable that is referred to as the midpoint variable.
  • If this variable is of the character type, a midpoint is established for each unique value.
  • If it is numeric, SAS establishes classes or bins for it.
  • In either case, the frequency in each class is summarized by vertical (or horizontal) bars.
basic output
Basic Output

This is kind of like

a histogram, except

for the spacing

This value of 75

corresponds to a

class ranging from

67.5 to 82.5

(with a frequency

of about 60)

a few options
A Few Options

Sets the number of midpoints

  • In this version


vbar plantht/space=0type=percent levels=9;



Controls spacing between bars

Changes the statistic from frequency

to percent

so we get
So We Get…

This is a histogram

setting midpoints
Setting Midpoints
  • You can also set midpoints explicitly:


vbar plantht/space=0type=percent




The chart will be constructed

with these 7 values as class


setting midpoints7
Setting Midpoints
  • We might try…


value classes









vbar plantht/space=0type=percent;

format plantht classes.;



we get
We Get…

SAS establishes

the midpoints first

then applies the format


the discrete option
The Discrete Option


vbar plantht/discretespace=0type=percent;

format plantht classes.;



Discrete establishes each distinct

value of the midpoint variable as

a midpoint on the graph. If the

variable is formatted, the formatted

values are used for the construction.

If you use discrete with

a numeric variable you


1. Be sure it has only a

few distinct values.


2. Use a format to make

categories for it.


Bar width determines

the space available for

writing midpoint values

bar width
Bar Width


vbar plantht/discretespace=0type=percent width=12;

format plantht classes.;



Sets bar width

horizontal bar charts
Horizontal Bar Charts

proc format;

value $pol_type \'CO\' = \'Carbon Monoxide\' \'LEAD\' = \'Lead\' \'O3\' = \'Ozone\'

\'SO2\' = \'Sulfur Diox.\';



hbar pol_type/discretetype=percent;

format pol_type pol_type.;



horizontal bar charts13
Horizontal Bar Charts

Besides the orientation

of the bars, horizontal bar

charts differ in that they

produce a set of summary

statistics by default.

You can suppress this with

the nostats option.

summary variables
Summary Variables
  • If I want my bar chart to summarize values of some analysis variable for each midpoint, use the sumvar= (and type= ) option.
  • E.g.:


hbar pol_type/discretesumvar=jobtotal type=meannostats;

format pol_type $pol_type.;




Mean total cost is

now summarized for

each pollution type.

Note: Only two types of statistics

are available with summary variables,

the sum (which is the default) and

the mean

axis modification
Axis Modification
  • The two axes on the bar graph are referred to as the midpoint axis (maxis) and the response axis (raxis).
  • Axes can be modified with axis statements. The general form of an axis statement is:


where n is an integer between 1 and 99.

axis modification18
Axis Modification
  • Lots of options can be set in an axis statement. E.g.:


hbar pol_type/discretesumvar=jobtotal type=meannostats maxis=axis1 raxis=axis2;

format pol_type $pol_type.;

axis1label=(c=blue h=1.5f=swissb ’Type of Pollution Project\');

axis2order=(0 to 100000 by 20000) minor=(n=1) value=(h=1.25f=swissb)

label=(f=swissb c=red h=1.5\'Mean Job Cost in Dollars\');



Assign axis statements

to each chart axis

Choose options/modifications

for specified axis

some options
Some Options
  • c=

sets axis color

  • w=

sets axis width

  • label=(options) Sets axis label, some options:
      • h= text height
      • c= text color
      • f= font style
      • ‘Any Text’ is the axis label (overrides any label currently assigned)
      • a= angle of the label text
      • r= rotation of individual characters
some options21
Some Options
  • value =(options)

controls appearance of axis values, options are similar to those for label.

  • order=(a to b by c)

sets axis starting and ending points and increment

  • minor=(options) major=(options)
    • Controls style of major or minor tick marks. Some options:
      • n= number of ticks (for minor it’s the number between major ticks)
      • h= height
      • c= color
      • w= width
bar fill patterns
Bar Fill Patterns
  • In all charts to this point, all bars have been red. It is possible to change the color, and it is possible to give each bar a different color.
  • To give bars different colors, specify patternid=midpoint in the hbar or vbar statement.
bar fill patterns24
Bar Fill Patterns


gives each bar its own

“pattern” or color

setting a color list
Setting a Color List
  • The goptions statement allows us to set several global graphics options, one of which is a color list:

goptionscolors=(blue red yellow cyan orange);


hbar pol_type/discretesumvar=jobtotal type=meannostats

maxis=axis1 raxis=axis2 patternid=midpoint;

format pol_type $pol_type.;

axis1label=(c=blue h=1.5f=swissb ’Type of Pollution Project\');

axis2order=(0 to 100000 by 20000)

minor=(n=1) value=(h=1.25f=swissb) label=(f=swissb c=red h=1.5’Mean Total Project Cost\');



This color becomes

the default axis and

text color

setting a color list26
Setting a Color List
  • Remember, setting a color is an option for any axis statement, so if you change the color list, you can always override the first color behavior in the axis statement.
  • coutline= is an option you can use in the vbar or hbar statement to set the bar outline color.
alternate fill patterns
Alternate Fill Patterns
  • You can specify some alternate fill patterns for bars (particularly useful for creating black & white charts) with a pattern statement(s).
  • The two major options in the pattern statement are c= and v=, for color and fill, respectively. Rules:
    • If no color is specified, the fill pattern is applied for each color in the color list.
    • If a color is specified, the fill pattern is applied only once.
    • The fill pattern can be set to on of Ln, Rn or Xn; where n is an integer between 1 and 5.
an example
An Example

L, R and X


to left-leaning,


and crossed

lines. The


controls the


Add these pattern statements to your previous code to get the above bar graph:

pattern c=black v=L1; pattern c=black v=R1;

pattern c=black v=X1; pattern c=black v=L5;

pattern c=black v=R5;

the group option
The group= option


hbar marsh/group=flower discretesumvar=plantht type=meannostats maxis=axis1 raxis=axis2 gaxis=axis3 patternid=midpoint;

format marsh marsh. flower flower.;

axis1label=(c=blue h=1.5f=swissb ’Marsh\');

axis2order=(0 to 120 by 20) minor=(n=1) value=(h=1.25f=swissb)

label=(f=swissb c=red h=1.5\'Mean Plant Height in Centimeters\');

axis3label=(c=green h=1.5f=swissb ’Flowering\');



Sets up a “grouping” variable—bars for the

full set of midpoints are constructed for each

value of the group variable

We can modify the

group axis as well

the subgroup option
The subgroup= option

Subgroup creates

stacked bars across levels

of a variable. (Not

appropriate for means)

the subgroup option32
The subgroup= option

proc gchart data=save.padgett;

hbar marsh/group=flower discrete type=percent nostats maxis=axis1 raxis= axis2 gaxis=axis3 patternid=subgroup subgroup=form legend=legend1;

format marsh $marsh. flower $flower.;

axis1 label=(c=blue h=1.5 f=swissb \'Marsh\');

axis2 order=(0 to 50 by 10) minor=(n=1)

value=(h=1.25 f=swissb)

label=(f=swissb c=red h=1.5 );

axis3 label=(c=green h=1.5 f=swissb \'Flowering\');

legend1 across=1 label=(c=blue \'Form of Plant\') frame cshadow=gray position=(top right) mode=share;

legend modifications
Legend Modifications
  • In a legend statement, some options available are:
    • label= similar to what is available in the axis statement.
    • across= and down= sets limit for row or column length in the legend (only use one)
    • frame draws a border around the legend
    • cshadow= places a shadow “behind” the legend in the specified color.
legend modifications34
Legend Modifications
  • position=( ) places the legend, choices include:
    • inside/outside
    • left/right/center
    • top/bottom/middle
    • (default is bottom center outside).
  • mode= tells how to allocate space for the chart and legend, choices are:
    • reserve: sets aside space for the legend before graph is drawn (can’t be used with position set to inside)
    • share or protect: allows graph and legend to use the same space. Share has the graph drawn over the legend if they intersect, protect does the opposite.