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http://www.chemicalgraphics.com/paul/images/DNA/BallAndStick.jpg. Ch. 9. DNA. Enduring Understanding:. Forensic Science involves many different scientific technologies. Essential Question:. How is DNA used in Forensic Science?. What do you know about DNA????.

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http://www.chemicalgraphics.com/paul/images/DNA/BallAndStick.jpg

Ch. 9

DNA


Enduring Understanding:

Forensic Science involves many different scientific technologies


Essential Question:

How is DNA used in Forensic Science?


What do you know about DNA????


http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/wilkins-bio.html

History of DNA

http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/campbell6e_awl/chapter16/deluxe.html

James Watson and Francis Crick

1953

Maurice Wilkins

Rosalind Franklin


http://www.molecularstation.com/molecular-biology-images/showphoto.php/photo/2

Chromosomes

DNA


DNA structure

Nucleotides:

sugar - deoxyribose

phosphate group

nitrogen base

cytosine - guanine

adenine - thymine


http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/BasePairing.html

Complementary Base Pairing

Adenine - Thymine

Cytosine - Guanine

Ave. human chromosome = 100 million base pairs


http://www5.pbrc.hawaii.edu/microangela/rbc.htm

Function of DNA:

-defined by the arrangement of base pairs

- protein synthesis

-20 amino acids

- normal hemoglobin vs. sickle cell


hemoglobinSickle Cell

valinevaline

histidinehistidine

leucineleucine

threoninethreonine

prolineproline

glutamatevaline

glutamateglutamate

..

..

..


http://library.thinkquest.org/18617/data/replication/replication.html

DNA replication

-synthesis of DNA from existing DNA

-DNA polymerase

-assemble new strand of DNA

-proofread DNA for mismatched base pairings


Polymerase Chain Reaction

use in forensic science:

-DNA thermal cycler

- small amount of DNA

- millions of copies

***sample size does not limit amount of tests run


http://www.forbes.com/2001/07/26/0726gfp.html

Recombinant DNA

process used to insert DNA from one organism into the DNA of another organism

mice with green fluorescent protein from jelly fish


How does recombinant DNA technology work?

1. use a restriction enzyme to cut DNA into fragments (150 different restriction enz.)

2. insert the isolated DNA strand into a foreign DNA strand, usually bacteria

-restriction enz used to open up foreign DNA

3. new DNA is spliced into foreign DNA, then put back into bacteria


DNA Typing with Tandem Repeats

human genome has repeating sequences of bases

(30%) = tandem repeats

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms

-RFLPs

-15-35 base pairs long, repeats up to 1000 times

-*numerous possibilities for the # of times a particular sequence of base letters can repeat itself on a DNA strand

can be used to tell different people apart


http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/clinton/lewinskydress.html

used to link Monica Lewinsky's dress with President Clinton


Gel Electrophoresis

-technique that separates materials according to migration through a gel under an electrical field

-use starch or agar gel

-What types of substances would move?

- match up bands


Mitochondrial DNA

DNA found in mitochondria - in loop form

can be used if hard to find nuclear DNA - charred body or hair shaft

can get from maternal related relative if can't get from body

- costly, harder to perform, time consuming


first mtDNA evidence in 1996 State of Tennessee vs. Paul Ware

linked 2 hairs to suspect

used to identify remains put in Tomb of Unknown Soldier as First LT. Micheal J Blassie (1998)

-took remains of mtDNA and compared to 7 families associated with case

-identified the remains to be Lt. Blassie


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