American Imperialism 1870-1914. US History. Essential Questions:. 1. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how to run their governments? 2. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how their people SHOULD live?
a. the policy by which stronger countries extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker countries
b. Can be DIRECT or INDIRECT
a. Alaska- how?
b. Hawaii- how?
a. Spain owned Cuba, Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and lots of small islands in the Pacific Ocean
b. Cuba wanted Independence from Spain
c. US decides to help Cuba overthrow Spanish government but needed an excuse to go to war
d. U.S.S. Maine blows up in Havana’s harbor, yellow journalists sensationalize reports of Spain’s mistreatment of Cuban nationalists
1. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as a war hero
2. Rough Riders- volunteer cavalry unit
1. US gains Guam, Puerto Rico, Phillipines, Samoa, Wake Island, Christmas Island, among many others
2. US still controls Cuba indirectly although they are technically “free”
a. US retains the right to intervene in Cuba if our business interests are threatened
b. US helps draft Cuban Constitution
3. US is officially an EMPIRE now!
3. Phillipines rebel against US presence
a. stage three year guerilla war
b. led by Emilio Aguinaldo
a. When TR becomes president in 1901, he believes in imperialism
b. Wants US to be seen as a tough dude
c. “Walk softly and carry a big stick”
1. Panama wanted to separate from Colombia
2. US helps Panama overthrow Colombian government in exchange for the canal
a. Symbolic show of American power
b. Navy=a country’s strength
1. based on Alfred T. Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
2. Strong navy= strong nation
US Interventions in Latin America- 1890-TODAY
El Salvador1981-92Command operation, troopsAdvisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash; long-term result: 75,000 murdered and destruction of popular movementNicaragua1981-90Command operation, navalCIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution; result: 50,000 murderedHonduras1982-90TroopsManeuvers help build bases near bordersGrenada1983-84Troops, bombingInvasion four years after revolutionBolivia1987TroopsArmy assists raids on cocaine regionPanama1989Troops, bombingNationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killedHaiti1994-95Troops, navalBlockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coupVenezuela2002Command operationFailed coup attempt to remove left-populist president Hugo ChavezHaiti2004-TroopsRemoval of democratically elected President Aristide; troops occupy country