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Chapter 12 Section 4. The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response. Objectives:. Explain the events leading to the Zwinglian Reformation Analyze the foundation of Calvinism and its spread throughout Europe. The Zwinglian Reformation.

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Chapter 12 Section 4

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Chapter 12Section 4

The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response


  • Explain the events leading to the Zwinglian Reformation

  • Analyze the foundation of Calvinism and its spread throughout Europe

The Zwinglian Reformation

  • Ulrich Zwingli: priest in Zurich who introduced reforms.

    • abolished relics and removed decorations from the church.

  • As his movement spread, he sought an alliance between Martin Luther and German reformers.

    • Both Swiss and German reformers believed they need to unify against Catholic reformers, but were unable to agree of the meaning of the sacrament of communion.

    • Page 994- Primary Source

  • October 1531 war broke out between the Protestant and Catholic states in Switzerland.

  • Zwingli was killed, and leadership of Protestantism was passed to John Calvin.

Ulrich Zwingli

John Calvin

Calvin and Calvinism

  • Educated in France, but forced to flee after converting to Protestantism.

    • 1536- Published the Institute of the Christian Religion

  • Stood close to Luther on many doctrines, but believed in the all-powerful nature of God.

  • This belief led him to the idea of predestination, that God determined in advance who would be saved.

  • Calvin called this the “eternal decree” of an all-powerful God.

  • In 1536 Calvin began working to reform the city of Geneva.

  • Created a Consistory that was

    1. set up to oversee Genevans’ moral life and doctrinal purity

    2. Operate as a court

    3. Punish those who misbehave

    By the mid 16th century, Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the most dynamic form of Protestantism.


  • Board Summary: What did you learn today?


  • Evaluate King Henry VIIIs role in the Reformation in England

  • Analyze the impact of the Anabaptists

  • Compare and Contrast the transformative aspects of the Reformation to the role of women in Society

The Reformation in England

  • Reformation began in politics, not religion.

  • King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon (who he had a daughter Mary with) and marry Anne Boleyn.

  • He was impatient with the popes unwillingness to annul, or declare his marriage invalid.

    • Archbishop of Canterbury declared marriage null and void, Anne was crowned queen and gave birth to a girl, who would become Elizabeth I

Henry VIII

  • In 1534 Parliament moved to break with the Catholic Church.

    • Henry beheaded Thomas More, a Christian humanist, who opposed his action.

    • He also dissolved Catholic monasteries.

  • Henry died in 1547, succeeded by his nine year old son Edward VI.

  • Mary came to the throne in 1553.

  • Mary was a Catholic Queen, and wanted it restored.

    • Had over three hundred Protestants burned as heretics.

Mary I

The Anabaptists

  • Many reformers gave power to the state. Those who believed in separation of Church and state were Anabaptists.

  • Believed the true Christian church was adult believers, and practiced adult baptism.

  • They were regarded as dangerous radicals.

Effects on the Role of Women

  • The family was the center of life, and clergy could marry.

  • A women was to be obedient to her husband and bear children.

    • The reformation did not change the lives of women.

The Catholic Reformation

  • The Catholic Church had a revitalization in the 16th century.

    • Supported by chief pillars: the Jesuits, reforms of the papacy, and the Council of Trent

  • Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits, was formed by Ignatius Loyola.

    • Made vows of absolute obedience to the pope.

    • Used education to spread their mission.

  • Pope Paul III formed a reform commission in 1537 to discover the Church’s ills.

    • Also began the Council of Trent.

  • March 1545 a group of officials met in Trent and would meet on and off for the next 18 years.

    • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings and established clear doctrines.

  • What did you learn today?


  • Page 401 1,2,4-6

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