Proposed evaporative emission standards for boats
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Proposed Evaporative Emission Standards for Boats. Proposed Evaporative Emission Standards for Boats. Mike Samulski Office of Transportation and Air Quality International Boat Builders’ Exhibition & Conference Session 310: Boat Fuel Systems October 11, 2007. Evaporative emission types

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Proposed evaporative emission standards for boats

Proposed Evaporative Emission Standards for Boats

Proposed Evaporative Emission Standards for Boats

Mike Samulski

Office of Transportation and Air Quality

International Boat Builders’ Exhibition & Conference

Session 310: Boat Fuel Systems

October 11, 2007


Outline

Evaporative emission types

Overview of proposed standards

Rulemaking process

Program details

Questions

Outline


Evaporative emission types

Evaporative Emission Types

Venting emissions

(diurnal, hot soak, running loss)

Refueling/spillage

Permeation

(fuel tank, hoses, other)


Evap standards

Evap Standards

Three decades of automotive evaporative emission control

(full vehicle test/standards)

Nonroad equipment are just now becoming subject to evaporative emission control


New nonroad standards

Component based standards

Fuel and tank permeation

Component test for diurnal control

Design-based certification

Existing standards

Large SI equipment (2007)

Recreational vehicles (2008)

Portable gas cans (2009)

New Nonroad Standards


Proposed standards

Proposed Standards

SI Marine

  • Portable tanks

    • Tank permeation

    • Self-sealing vent

  • Vessels

    • Hose and tank permeation

    • Diurnal emissions

    • Refueling spillage

      Small SI as well

    • Hose and tank permeation

    • Running loss

    • Diffusion


Marine evap nprm overview

Refueling Spillage:requested comment on potential for industry consensus standards (ABYC)

Marine Evap: NPRM Overview

aDesign standard – self-sealing vent

bFuel tanks installed in nontrailerable boats (≥ 26 ft. in length) may meet

a standard of 0.16 g/gal/day over an alternative test cycle


Rulemaking process

gather information

meet with stakeholders

SBREFA

Rulemaking Process

  • publish “Final Rulemaking”

Implement

FRM

(2008)

YOU ARE HERE

  • publish “Notice of Proposed Rulemaking”

  • lead time

  • certification

Public

Comment

(closed Aug 3)

NPRM

(5/18/07)

  • public hearing

  • written comment period

  • address comments

Pre-

Proposal


Small businesses

Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

Convened SBREFA Panels in 2001 and 2006

Representatives from engine, boat, tank, and hose manufacturers

Proposal includes all recommendations from panel report

Appropriate lead time

Broad definition of emission family

Compliance progress review for fuel tanks

Engineering design-based certification for tanks

Fuel tank credit program

Hardship provisions

Small Businesses


Program details

Program Details

Diurnal

Refueling

Spillage

Hose

Permeation

Tank

Permeation


Proposed diurnal standards

Proposed Diurnal Standards

  • Portable fuel tanks

    • Self-sealing valve

  • Installed tanks

    • Trailerable boats (<26 ft)

      • 0.40 g/gal/day

      • 25.6-32.2°C

    • Nontrailerable boats

      • 0.16 g/gal/day

      • 27.6-30.2°C

    • Design-based certification

      • Seal tank up to 1.0 psi, or

      • Passive-purge carbon canister

  • Tank manufacturer would certify


Diurnal sealed tank with pressure relief

Diurnal: sealed tank with pressure relief


Diurnal passive carbon canister

Diurnal: passive carbon canister

72-96°F

Temp.Reduction

72-96 F 64%

78-90 F 68%

81.6-86.4 F 71%

canister in boat


Proposed hose standards

Proposed Hose Standards

  • Fuel line

    • 15 g/m2/day

      • Fuel CE10, 23°C

    • Boat and engine hose

      • Requested comment on more time for under cowl hose on outboards

    • Primer bulbs

  • Vent and fill hose

    • Standards do not apply unless hose will hold standing fuel

  • Fuel line manufacturer would certify


Hose low permeation materials

Straight-run hose

Low permeation hose widely available

Fluoroelastomer/fluoroplastic barriers

Molded hose and other rubber components

Fluroelastomer construction

Hose: Low Permeation Materials

cover

rubber

SAE J1527

Includes specification

For 15 g/m2/day hose

barrier layer

reinforcement


Proposed tank standards

Proposed Tank Standards

  • 1.5 g/m2/day

    • E10 fuel, 28°C

    • Preconditioning

      • Fuel soak

      • Durability testing

  • Design-based certification

    • Metal tanks

    • Automotive type multi-layer tanks

  • Tank manufacturer would certify


Tank permeation barrier treatment

Fluorination

Expose tank surfaces to fluorine gas

Larger F molecules replace smaller H molecules on surface

Sulfonation

Expose tank surfaces to sulfur trioxide

Larger sulfonic acid groups form on surface

Tank Permeation: barrier treatment

HC

HC


Tank permeation barrier treatment1

Tank Permeation:barrier treatment

HDPE Blow-Molded Fuel Tanks [g/m2/day]

Crosslink PE Roto-Molded Fuel Tanks [g/m2/day]


Tank permeation barrier platelets

Tank Permeation:barrier platelets

HDPE/EVOH Blow-Molded Fuel Tanks [E10]

HC

Nanocomposite Fiberglass [E10]


Tank permeation continuous barrier

Tank Permeation:continuous barrier

Thermoformed HDPE/EVOH

Fuel Tanks [g/m2/day] 29°C, E10

adhesive

HDPE

EVOH

HDPE

adhesive

HDPE/IXEF Blow-molded

Test Bottles [g/m2/day] 29°C, E10

XLPE

IXEF


Tank permeation continuous barrier1

Tank Permeation:continuous barrier

Roto-Molded PE/PA11

Fuel Tanks [g/m2/day] 29°C, E10

XLPE

PA 11

Roto-Molded PE/CBT

“Single-Shot” Fuel Tanks

Manufacturer testing on 5 gallon tanks showed permeation results well below proposed standards

XLPE

CBT


Tank permeation barrier coating

Epoxy coatings applied to XLPE tanks

Adhesion treatment (light fluorination)

Tank Permeation: barrier coating

* Inspection showed uneven application of the coating which likely affected permeation results


Tank permeation alternative materials

Tank Permeation:alternative materials

Alternative Material

Fuel Tanks [g/m2/day] 29°C, E10

Vandar

Celcon


Refueling

Refueling

  • Spillage control

    • Design filler neck for nozzle with automatic shut off, or

    • Filler neck orientation to cause fuel flow-back into tank

  • Approaches

    • Redesign of fuel system

    • Automatic fuel shut-off before overflow

    • Fuel/air separator in vent line


System integration

System Integration

  • Industry consensus standards

    • SAE J1527 addresses hose permeation

    • ABYC H24 potential vehicle for spillage control

  • Working with NMMA/ABYC/USCG

    • Industry is developing canister installation specifications in context of EPA & USCG standards

    • ABYC is assessing fuel/air separators and fuel system designs for spillage control

    • NMMA certification


Questions

Questions

http://www.epa.gov/otaq/marinesi.htm

Mike Samulski

[email protected]


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