Hormones in Farms Animals

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Course Outline. -Hormone: Definition and classification-Functions of hormone in farm animal-Hormone that relate to growth and metabolism (Somatotropin; T3, T4)-Water and mineral metabolic control-Hormone and animal production under diverse environmental conditions (food and water shortage, heat

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Hormones in Farms Animals

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1. Hormones in Farms Animals H.E., Mohamed, Ph.D. Department of Animal Production http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/75822/default.aspx [email protected]

2. Course Outline -Hormone: Definition and classification -Functions of hormone in farm animal -Hormone that relate to growth and metabolism (Somatotropin; T3, T4) -Water and mineral metabolic control -Hormone and animal production under diverse environmental conditions (food and water shortage, heat stress, etc)

3. -Application of hormones in animal production, current practices and ethics -Discussion lecture on new technologies on research on farm animal hormones

4. Assessment protocol 70% (CA): 10 minutes presentation of selected hormone (20%) 3 pages assignment for the same hormone presented (20%)\ 3 quizzes (at the last 10 minutes of lecture 3, 6 and lecture 9), of 10% each) 30% ( final exam): MCQ Short essays

5. Definition They are the chemical integrators of a multicellular existence, coordinating activities from daily maintenance to reproduction and development.

6. Classification Hormones can be classified by several properties 1. Classification by site of action. 1.1. Autocrine secretion - substance released by cell that affects the secreting cell itself (e.g. norepinephrine is released by a neurosecretory cell in the adrenal medulla, and norepinephrine itself inhibits further release by that cell - this is also an example of direct negative feedback)

7. Paracrine secretion - substance released by cell that affects neighboring cells. Not released into bloodstream (e.g. histamine released at site of injury to constrict blood vessel walls and stop bleeding) Endocrine secretion - substance released by cell into bloodstream that affects distant cells.

9. ANATOMICAL classification Hypothalamus: SomatostatinGrowth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)Dopamine (PIH)

10. Anterior pituitary gland Growth hormone (hGH)Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)ProlactinMelanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)

11. Posterior pituitary gland: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or: vasopressin) Oxytocin

12. Thyroid gland : Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) Calcitonin Parathyroid glands : Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

13. Adrenal cortex: Cortisol AldosteroneDehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Adrenal medulla : Adrenalin (or: epinephrine)Noradrenalin (or: norepinephrine)

14. Kidney: Erythropoietin 1,25 Dihydroxy Vit D3 Renin / angiotensin I Pancreas: Insulin Glucagon

15. Liver: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF I) or: somatomedin Stomach: Gastrin Duodenum: Secretin Cholecystokinin (CCK)

16. Gonads: Sex hormones: Oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone.

17. Hormone Receptors A hormone receptor is a receptor protein on the surface of a cell or in its interior that binds to a specific hormone. The hormone causes many changes to take place in the cell. Binding of hormones to hormone receptors often trigger the start of a biophysical signal that can lead to further signal transduction pathways, or trigger the activation or inhibition of genes

18. Types of Hormone Receptors Peptide hormone receptors are often transmembrane proteins. They are also called G-protein-coupled receptors, sensory receptors or ionotropic receptors. These receptors generally function via intracellular second messengers (cAMP)

19. Steroid hormone receptors and related receptors are generally soluble proteins that function through gene activation. These are plasma membrane, cytosol and nucleus. They are generally intracellular receptors.

20. Types of receptors: Type I Receptors : Sex hormone receptors (sex hormones) ; Glucocorticoid receptor (glucocorticoids) ; Mineralocorticoid receptor (mineralocorticoids) Type II Receptors: Thyroid hormone receptor

23. Measurements Bioassay (biological assay ) To measure the effects of a substance on a living organism

24. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) or Enzyme ImmunoAssay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample.

25. Microtitre plate (Microplate): hold tens of nanolitres to several milliliters of liquid A microplate typically has 6, 24, 96, 384 or even 1536 sample wells Polystyrene is a hydrocarbon from petroleum

26. indirect," ELISA non-specific; any proteins in the sample will stick to the microtiter plate well. ---Sandwich ELISA

27. Competitive ELISA Much less sensitive than the direct ELISA

28. RIA (Radioimmunoassay) Extremely sensitive Extremely specific Requires a sophisticated apparatus costly

29. Procedure a known quantity of an antigen is made radioactive, frequently by labeling it with gamma-radioactive isotopes of iodine attached to tyrosine.

30. Gamma Counter LG-4

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